cod. 1005244

Academic year 2021/22
1° year of course - Second semester
Francesca DEGOLA
Academic discipline
Botanica generale (BIO/01)
Discipline biologiche e genetiche vegetali ed animali
Type of training activity
36 hours
of face-to-face activities
3 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Integrated course unit module: RURAL ECONOMY, AGRONOMY - BOTANY

Learning objectives

1- Knowledge and understanding:
- To know the anatomy of the plant cell and of the different plant organs and tissues;
- To know the classification criteria of the different plant organs and tissues;
- To know and understand the main biochemical processes that characterize and take place in the plant cell;
- To know and understand the main functions of the different plant organs and tissues;
- To know and understand the main natural and artificial classification techniques of plants;
- To know the characteristics and understand the use of the main herbaceous crops typical of the italian territory.

2- Applying knowledge and understanding:
- Be able to recognize and classify properly the different plant organs and tissues;
- Be able to recognize and classify the main herbaceous crops typical of the italian territory.

3- Communication skills:
- Be able to explain the characteristics and ways of recognizing herbaceous crops even to an inexperienced audience.

4- Making judgements:
- Know how to evaluate the morphological characteristics of a plant according to its intended use.

5- Learning skills:
- Link the different topics dealt with each other and with basic and related disciplines. Update and understand the scientific publications on plant biology.


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Course unit content

INTRODUCTION The concept of plant organism. Binomial nomenclature. Origin, diversity and classification of plants. Outlines of major biological molecules: lipids, sugars, amino acids, proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids. Organic acids. ATP and NAD(P). THE PLANT CELL The main features of the plant cell. The nucleus and the cytoplasm. The plasma membrane. The endomembrane systems. Tonoplast and vacuole. The osmotic phenomena and the turgor. Plastids. Outlines of mitochondria, peroxisomes and other organelles. The cytoskeleton. Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis. The cell wall and plasmodesmata. WATER BALANCE IN PLANTS The water in the soil. Water absorption by the roots. Water transport through the xylem. Movement of water from the leaf to the atmosphere. MINERAL NUTRITION AND TRANSPORT Essential nutrients for plants. Absorption of mineral elements of the soil. Membrane transport processes and translocation of mineral elements in the plant. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Reactions in light and dark. Photosynthetic electron transport, proton and synthesis of ATP. Primary and secondary starch. C3, C4 and CAM photosynthetic metabolism. Distribution of photosynthesis products: allocation and partition. Ecology of photosynthesis. HISTOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF HIGHER PLANTS Meristematic tissues and adult tissues. Anatomy of root and stem in Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. The dorsal-ventral leaf, isolateral and needle-like. Stomata and stomatal movements. ONTOGENETIC PLANT CYCLE Overview on reproduction of Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Angiosperms: the flower and the sexual reproduction. Microsporogenesis, macrosporogenesis, gametogenesis, fertilization. Embryogenesis. The seed: structure and chemical composition. Germination and seedling formation. The fruit. OUTLINES ON SECONDARY METABOLISM AND PROTECTION OF PLANTS TOWARDS BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC STRESS Terpenes, phenolic compounds, nitrogen-containing compounds. Defence against herbivore insects and pathogens. water, heat, salt, oxidative stresses and major environmental pollutants. MAIN CROPS ADDRESSED TO AGRO-ZOOTECHNICAL USES Graminaceae, Fabaceae, industrial crops;

Full programme

- Plant Cell
- Root
- The stem
- The leaf
- Plant tissue
- Life cycle of Angiosperms: flower, fertilization, embryo, seed, fruit
Plant Physiology
- The water in the soil
- Water absorption by the roots
- Transport of water through the xylem
- Movement of water from the leaf to the atmosphere

- Essential nutrients for plants
- Soil, roots and microbes
- Absorption of mineral elements of the soil
- Processes of membrane transport
- Transport of ions in the roots

- THE PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Reactions to light
- Organization photosynthetic apparatus
- Organization of antenna systems for light absorption
- Stages of photosynthesis
- Mechanisms of the electron transport
- Transport of protons and ATP synthesis in the chloroplast
- Synthesis of glucose

- THE PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Reactions of carbon
- The Calvin cycle
- C3, C4 and CAM plants
- Starch and sucrose
- Control of the photosynthetic apparatus
- TRANSLOCATION in the phloem
- Routes of translocation
- Models of translocation: from its sources and sinks
- Substances translocated in the phloem and speed of movement
- The model of the pressure flow for the transport of the phloem
- Loading of the phloem
- Download the phloem (phloem unloading) and transition from "sink-to-source"
- Distribution of photosynthesis: the allocation and distribution
- The transport of signaling molecules

- Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, electron transport and mitochondrial ATP synthesis
- Lipids Metabolism

- Assimilation of nitrate and ammonium
- Assimilation of sulfur
- Assimilation of phosphate
- Assimilation of cations
- Assimilation of oxygen

- Cutina, suberin and waxes
- Secondary metabolites: terpenes, phenolic compounds, nitrogen-containing compounds

- Structure and synthesis of plant cell wall
- Models of cell expansion
- Speed of cell elongation
- Degradation of the wall and plant defenses

- Physiology STRESS
- Water stress, thermal and saline
- Lack of oxygen

-introduction to phytopathology
-main infection strategies of plant pathogens
-plant defense

-nitrogen fixation bacteria


- Classification of plants of agricultural interest (cereals, industrial plants, fodders, forage grasses).



Degola - "Progetto Create"

ISBN: 9781307524741

Students can find the pdf of lessons on the Elly ( or get them directly from the lecturer.

Teaching methods

Lectures will be conducted in presence and contextual transmission in teleconference on the authorized web platform, depending on the sanitary situation and following the current regulations. Lectures will be held hrough the aid of a POWER POINT support.

The power point presentations used to support the lessons will be directly provided by the lecturer to students.
Power point presentations are considered an integral part of the didactic material. Any changes made to the presentations will be promptly reported by the lecturer during the lessons.
Recorded lessons will be available on the Elly platform for 3 days after each lesson.

Assessment methods and criteria

Learning evaluation will take place through summative assessment.

Mode and type of test: written test with closed multiple-choice questions, maximum duration of 35 minutes; the number of questions is 31.

Scale of assessment: the scale of assessment ranges from 0 to 30 cum laude.

Weights and evaluation criteria: Each correct answer has the value of n. 1 points; Unanswered or wrong answers have a value of 0; the 31st correct answer allows the achievement of the laude.

Materials useful to support the test: no paper or electronic material is allowed.
Methods for returning test results: the test results will be sent via email by sending a list listing the serial number of each candidate to which the evaluation will be compiled according to the criteria set.
To the students with diagnosis of specific learning disability (DSA) certified under law n. 170/2010, proper specific support will be provided.
The examination, if not otherwise communicated, will be held in an on-line form.

Other information

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