cod. 1004577

Academic year 2023/24
4° year of course - Second semester
- Giacomo GNUDI - Fabio LEONARDI
Academic discipline
Clinica chirurgica veterinaria (VET/09)
Discipline cliniche veterinarie
Type of training activity
44 hours
of face-to-face activities
3 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

To allow students in Veterinary Medicine to know and understand the main surgical tools and procedures and the basic elements of anesthesiology.

At the end of the training the student must demonstrate that he/she is able to:
1. define the main basic concepts regarding orthopedic and soft tissue surgery and anesthesia of animals, including laboratory animals and exotic pets;
2. know and understand instruments and technique useful to perform a surgical procedure;
3. know, understand and discuss anesthetic techniques and managements related to the species, pathology, procedure and physical status of the patient;
4. know the current rules regarding ethics’ code, drug management and animal welfare.

At the end of the training the student must demonstrate that he/she is able to:
1. apply the basic concepts regarding orthopedic and soft tissue surgery and plan a surgery;
2. formulate a suitable anesthetic protocol for the patient in relation to the species, pathology and procedure;
3. discuss a clinical case and to point out tools and techniques useful to perform a surgical procedure taking account of animal welfare too.

At the end of the training the student will be able to judge clinical cases in relation to the pathologies:
1. choosing autonomously the surgical medical tools more suitable to deal with a surgery;
2. formulating autonomously the most suitable anesthetic protocol and management.

At the end of the training the student must demonstrate that he/she is able to:
1. express ideas, opinions and concepts regarding the main surgical tools and procedures and the basic elements of anesthesiology with appropriate words;
2. read, translate, understand and summarize scientific reports in Italian and English languages;
3. quickly identify the topic of a scientific discussion, express yourself clearly with appropriate words and give their contribution to the topic;
4. communicate clearly and comprehensibly with the owner with the aim to expose the basics of the surgical procedure and the problems and risks related to the anesthesia.
At the end of the training the student must be able to:
1. find and learn independently the new scientific guidelines in the field of surgical tools and procedures and anesthesiology;
2. learn the proper manual dexterity of the basic surgical and anesthetic procedures;
3. understand the importance of pain therapy in order to improve postoperative outcome and to respect animal welfare;
4. develop actions to prevent and control pathologies that may require surgery and anesthesia.


All of the courses provided for by the teaching regulations (pharmacology-toxicology-chemotherapy; Diagnostic imaging - Veterinary radiology - Surgical pathology)

Course unit content

The surgical room. Surgical instruments. Sterilization. Immobilization of surgical patient. Injection. Hemostasis. Centesis. Cateterism.
Bandage. Patient preparation. Principles of asepsis and antisepsis and
antibiotic role. Surgical planning. Surgical theatre. Preparation of the
surgeon. Dieresis and synthesis of soft tissues. Suture materials, knots
and sutures. Osteosynthesis: internal fixation (nail, screws, plates,
cerclage), external fixation. Wound treatment. Drains. Reconstructive
surgery. Nutritional support in hospitalised dogs and cats. Principles of anaesthesia in small and large animals, laboratory animals and exotic pets. Preanesthetic assessment. Preanesthetics. Injectable and inhalation anesthetics. Anesthetic machines and breathing systems. Ventilation. Monitoring. Locoregional anesthesia. Fluid therapy. Analgesia.
Pain management in dog, cat, horse, cattle, swine, sheep, rabbit: preemptive Analgesia, intraoperative Analgesia, postoperative Analgesia, love tender care, acupuncture. Use of analgesics drugs for acute and chronic pain management: opioids, alpha2-agonists, Fans, local anesthetic drugs, ketamine, corticosteoids, amantadine, gabapentin.
Anesthesia for selected diseases. Anesthetic emergencies.

Full programme

- - -


Fossum Theresa Welch: Chirurgia dei Piccoli Animali. Masson Editore.
Slatter Douglas: Chirurgia dei piccoli animali. Antonio Delfino Editore.
Antonio Delfino Editore.
Federico Corletto: Anestesia del cane e del gatto. Poletto Editore. Bufalari Lachin: Anestesia - Cane, gatto e animali non convenzionali. Elsevier.
Lumb & Jones: Veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. Blackwell Publishing

Teaching methods

Lectures (in person or via web) and practices

Assessment methods and criteria

The check of learning outcome described by the descriptors D1 and, in part, D2 and D3 will be made through an oral exam. The questions aim to verify knowledge, understanding and making judgments even in choosing, in practice, the most suitable solution for a clinical case.
Some of the learning outcomes described by descriptors D2, D3 and D4 and all of those of D5 will not be evaluated. Nevertheless during the practical exercises the students, divided into small groups, must be analyze and evaluate a clinical case and, even with the aid of the professor, find a solution to the problem.
The oral exam consists of 3 following questions: the first on a topic of anesthesiology (e.g., propofol, loco-regional anesthesia of the thoracic limb, dexmedetomidine, etc.); the second question will focus on a topic of operative medicine (e.g., haemostasis techniques, bladder catheterization, skin suture); the third will have as its topic the discussion of a clinical case (also with the presentation of images) from the pre-anaesthesiological evaluation to the diagnostics findings, from the choice of the anesthetic protocol to the management of any complications. Each answer will be assigned a score from 0 to 10; the final score will be the sum of the 3 previous scores.
Students with SLD, BES or disabilities must send requests to be able to take advantage of compensatory and/or dispensatory measures at the exam site at least 10 working days before the date scheduled for the exam by email addressed to the professor in charge of the course and in cc to the Department contact person (list of contact persons and related email addresses available here and to the Reception and Inclusion Center (

Other information

Indications will be given on how to carry out a bibliographic search and how to read and critically review the information contained in scientific articles.