cod. 1004386

Academic year 2018/19
3° year of course - Second semester
Academic discipline
Ispezione degli alimenti di origine animale (VET/04)
Discipline anatomo-patologiche ed ispettive veterinarie
Type of training activity
56 hours
of face-to-face activities
4 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit


Learning objectives

The course aims to provide students with a scientific approach and legislative issues in the field of food hygiene, with special reference to microbial and viral contamination of foods of animal origin as well as skills relating to the application of rules of hygiene as a preventive measure in the context of food poisoning (I and II descriptors of Dublin). They also include concepts for prevention during production, marketing and preservation of foods susceptible to bacterial and viral contamination. The production technologies of drinking milk, the conditions for the marketing of raw milk and related National and European legislation are treated with the aim of providing students with the skills needed to draw up HACCP plans as part of food production (III, IV and V descriptors of Dublin). During the laboratory exercises ISO official methods for detecting microorganisms of particular importance to hygiene and food safety (Salmonella, Listeria, E. coli, S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae)are applied.


- - -

Course unit content

Factors of bacterial growth in foods. The microbial and viral contamination of food of animal origin. Surveillance of foodborne zoonoses at National and European level.
Food poisoning: campylobacteriosis, listeriosis, infections by pathogenic Escherichia coli (with particular reference to EHEC, STEC and EggEC pathotypes), yersiniosis, brucellosis, Cronobacter sakazakii infection, poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus.
Food poisoning: histamine poisoning.
Food-borne viral diseases: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus.
Health problems and trade problems in raw milk (Reg. 853/2005, State-Regions Agreement 25.01.2007, 10.12.2008 OM, DM 12.12.2012). Processing technologies of drinking milk: pasteurization, UHT, sterilization microfiltration. Legal indicators of heat treatment of milk. Drinking milk of high quality.
Microbiological criteria for foodstuffs: Reg 2073/2005 and subsequent amendments

Full programme

General concepts on food hygiene.
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary contamination of food
The total bacterial count as a hygienic parameter of food.
The count of Enterobacteriaceae as a hygienic and technological parameter of food.
Risk factors related to food-borne diseases.
EC Directive 2003/99 ("Zoonosis Directive")
EC Regulation 2073/2005 and subsequent additions and modifications (Regulation on microbiological criteria applied to food products)
Food-borne zoonotic bacterial diseases: listeriosis, campylobacteriosis, yersiniosis, Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), brucellosis, Staphylococcus aureus intoxication.
Cronobacter sakazakii infection.
Food-borne viral infections: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatitis A Virus, Hepatitis E Virus, Poliovirus.
EC Regulation 853/2004: hygiene and health criteria of cow's milk for food use.
Sale of raw milk on the Italian territory: regulation and microbiological criteria.
High quality drinking milk.
Thermal treatments of drinking milk: pasteurization, UHT treatment, sterilization.
Microfiltration of drinking milk.
Characteristics of the different types of pasteurized and sterilized milk.
Legal enzymes and other parameters of heat treatment of drinking milk.


Colavita G., Igiene e tecnologia degli alimenti di origine animale, Ed. Point Veterinaire Italie, 2012, Milano.
RONDANELLI E.G., FABBI M., MARONE P.: Trattato sulle infezioni e tossinfezioni alimentari. Ed. Selecta Medica, 2005, Pavia
Galli A., Bertoldi A. Igiene degli alimenti e HACCP (2006). IV Edizione. EPC Libri

Teaching methods

Lectures and practical exercises in the laboratory of food microbiology

Assessment methods and criteria

Written answer to open answers, each of which is assigned a variable score from 0 to 10. The total score that the student can reach with the written test ranges from insufficient (<18/30) to 30. In case of excellent answer to one or more questions, the score may be 30 with laude if it was already 30/30.
In case of insufficient voting (16-17 / 30) the candidate is submitted to an oral examination.
The results of the written test are communicated to the candidates when they are called for any oral exam.

Other information

- - -