cod. 1004574

Academic year 2018/19
4° year of course - First semester
Academic discipline
Clinica medica veterinaria (VET/08)
Discipline cliniche veterinarie
Type of training activity
56 hours
of face-to-face activities
4 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in - - -

Integrated course unit module: Medical Pathology - Medical Semeiology

Learning objectives

The course aims at letting the student know and understand the essential basis of the physical examination and clinical pathology. The student must a) know and understand the methodology for the physical examination to be applied at the clinical problem;b) know and understand the diagnostic pathway based on the physical examination and clinical pathology; c) know, understand and remember the correct definition of the medical terminology about symptoms and clinical problems; D2- APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
At the end of the course the student is expected to be able to Perform a physical examination of an animals Set up a diagnostic plan based on physical examination, laboratory findings Interpret evidences from clinical pathology D3- MAKING JUDGMENTSAt the end of the course the student is expected to be able to Criticize the diagnostic tools Analize and evaluate the diagnostic approach oriented to the setting of a clinical problem Analize a diagnostic planD4-ABILITA’ COMUNICATIVEAt the end of the course the student is expected to be able to Inform and clearly communicate the data of the clinical problem by using an appropriate terminology Appropriately communicate the clinical problem with the owner or animal leaderD5- LEARING SKILLSAt the end of the course the student is expected to be able to Change the approach to the patient according to what was learnedConsult critical texts and publicationsPossessing mastery of self-assessment (self-assessment) methodologies and continuous self-assessment skills also with critical attitude


General pathology; Animal pathophysiology; Veterinary Immunepathology; Pharmacology- Toxicology - Chemotherapy

Course unit content

The course in Physical Examination and Clinical Pathology aims at giving the basis for the physical examination of the animals. Thanks to the physical examination and clinical pathology the student must be able to design the clinical approach to the sick animal

Full programme

General Semeiology
Definition of semeiology; brief history on the evolution of the semeiologic technique; direct or physical semeiological processes: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation, measurement, thermometry, polls, catheterizations, exploratory bites. indirect or instrumental semeiological processes: urine, feces, blood, transudate, exudate, gastric and ruminal juice, microbiological tests, allergy tests and serological tests.
Semiological test scheme. History: environmental, collective, individual, remote, proximate, physiological, pathological. Signaling and identification of the subject.
Examinations (present state): skeletal development and constitution; nutritional status and muscle tone, sensory status, attitudes, and distinguishing features; skin and subcutaneous connective tissue, mucosal membranes; lymphnodes, temperature, pulse, breathing, major organ functions .
Special Semiology: examination of the body systems in the species of veterinary interest.

Examination of the digestive system
Appetite, thirst, degeneration of taste; intake of food and beverages; alterations of mastication, swallowing disorders, rumination, belching, vomiting, defecation. Examination of the oral cavity: inspection of the labial (size and appearance of salivary flow, lesions of the lips, mobility of the lower jaw); examination of the buccal vestibule and mouth (temperature, salivary secretion, smell, feel, appearance); review the language. Examination of the teeth. Examination of the pharynx and esophagus. Examination of the abdomen in horses and small animals: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation. Examination of the perineum. Rectal examination in horses, cattles and dogs. Rhino-esophageal intubation in the horse; gastric intubation in small animals. Examination of stomachs of cattle: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation of the rumen; collection and examination of rumen content; e Evidence of diaphragmatic and peritoneal pain in cattle: compression, percussion with heavy hammer, and Kalchschmidt test. Examination of the intestine in cattle; intraperitoneal exploration in cattle; exploration endoruminoreticolare in cattle; rectal examination in cattle; survey rhino-esophageal in cattle; survey in the bovine rumen. Puncture of the abdomen (paracentesis) in the horse, in cattle, in small animals. Examination of the payment of the serous cavities: physical examination, chemical, microscopic, bacteriological. Stool examination: macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, bacteriological examination and culture, blood research. Examination of the liver: physical examination, functional tests, liver biopsy. Examination of the spleen.
Examination of the respiratory system
Semeiologic examination of the upper respiratory tract: examination of the nostrils and the nasal mucosa; examination of the breasts; examination of the larynx; provocation, characters and genesis of cough; examination of the trachea. Inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation of the chest; functional examination of the breath.
Examination of the cardiovascular system
Capillaries Arteries: inspection, palpation (arterial pulse), auscultation. Veins, swelling and increase in volume, decrease or disappearance; venous pulsations. Heart: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation of the heart region; outbreaks of auscultation, heart sounds and tones; extracardiac noise. Laboratory Tests of cardiovascular function: measurement of blood pressure, phonocardiographs, electrocardiography.
Examination of the blood and blood-forming organs. Blood-forming organs: lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and laboratory evaluation semeiologic of homeostasis.
Examination of the urinary tract
Supplement medical history. Direct physical examination: inspection, palpation, rectal examination. Functional examination: urine test chemical and physical blood tests, renal function tests.
Examination of the integumentary system. Direct physical examination: inspection, Smelling, palpation, percussion. Microscopic examination of material obtained by cutaneous scarification.
Examination of the endocrine glands
Semeiological direct and functional examination of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas.
Examination of the neuro-muscular system
State of the sensorium, standing and gait; Postural reactions. Sensory examination. Examination of cranial and spinal reflexes. EMG and EEG investigations.
Methodological principles of decision-making procedure in veterinary medicine
Symptoms, signs and clinical data; Causes of errors in the detection of symptoms, Normality and Pathology; Measurement of symptoms, The clinical explanation; Programming the diagnosis, The minimization of errors and costs of the diagnosis, The diagnostic choice ; Medical practice and practice of clinical research.
Haematology: Blood cell count; Enzymes and substrates; Laboratory investigations for the evaluation of: liver function; Kidney and urinary tract function + urinalyses; disorders associated with cardiopathy; gastrointestinal disorders; endocrin disorders; muscular and skeleton diseases; autoimmune disorders; metabolic disorders; acid-base balance. Biological fluid examination.


Paolo Ciaramella. Semeiologia Clinica Veterinaria. Poletto Editore, 2014, Vermezzo (MI)

PALTRINIERI-BERTAZZOLO-GIORDANO: Patologia clinica del cane e del gatto. Approccio pratico alla diagnostica di laboratorio,1° ed., Elsevier-Masson, 2010

Teaching methods

During the formal classroom lectures, the basics of clinical veterinary methodology will be laid out for the recognition of symptoms and clinical signs as well as their appropriate definitions.The theaching material (guiding contents for lectures as PowerPoint presentations) are preloaded on the Elly platform at the beginning of the course. The same material can be requested directly to the teacher. This teaching material for classroom presentations is not complete and therefore it needs to be supplemented with the lecturer's lecture lesson, as well as the suggested textbooks. The student is required to incorporate the lesson with the contents of the suggested texts. The course will be accompanied by practical lessons (practice) based on the physical examination of the different domestic animals. In addition, in-depth seminars will be organized on specific subjects with prevalent relevance to practical application also in collaboration with the Medical Practice Exercises.

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of the expected learning outcomes described by the indicators D1, D2 and D3 is based on an oral examination (oral question) consisting of three questions mainly focused on the critical discussion of clinical methodology, physical and clinical pathology. With the same questions, it will be ensured that the achievement of the objectives will enable the student to apply what is acquired in terms of knowledge. Each of the three questions has an equal weight for the mark definition that is expressed in thirty. The outcome of the test is communicated at the end of the examination. No partial or on-going (in itinere) tests are provided.

Other information

Monday to Friday on appointment