cod. 14541

Academic year 2016/17
4° year of course - First semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
integrated course unit
11 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

The course aims at giving the student the opportunity to know and understand the essential aspects of etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of internal medicine diseases affecting domestic small and large animals, so that the student can apply the ability acquired by the knowledge and understanding to recognize a clinical medical problem and to set an appropriate diagnostic iter and therapeutic plan.
The student, at the end of the course, thanks to previously acquired competences in physiology, general pathology, pharmacology, should demonstrate the ability to know and understand causes and consequences of the most common clinical diseases of small and large animals.
Thus, the student by application of the acquired competences will be able to recognise and correctly interpret signs, symptoms and results of physical examination, to choose the most appropriate laboratory and instrumental diagnostic method to make a diagnosis and prognosis and to plan the most appropriate therapy and follow-up of the patient.


Competences on physiology, general pathology and physio-pathology are needed.

Course unit content

The first part of the course is devoted to general and special semeiology.
The second block of lessons provide fundamental knowledge on the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of the most common internal medicine diseases of domestic small and large animals.

Full programme

Medical pathology of the cardiovascular system:
Pericardial diseases. Myocardial disease. Endocardial diseases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities. Acute and chronic cardiocirculatory failure.

Medical pathology of the respiratory system:
Diseases of the upper respiratory tract (nasal and paranasal cavity, larynx). Diseases of the trachea and bronchi. Diseases of the lungs and pleura. Diaphragm diseases.

Medical pathology of the urinary system:
Kidney diseases. Diseases of the bladder, urethers and urethra. Acute and chronic renal failure.

Madical pathology of the gastrointestinal system:
Diseases of the oral cavity. Diseases of the pharynx. Diseases of the esophagus. Diseases of the stomach. Diseases of rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum. Diseases of intestines. Colics. Diaseas of liver and gall bladder. Diseases of pancreas. Diseases of the peritoneum.

Medical pathology of the endocrine system:
Diseases of thyroid and parathyroid. Diseases of the adrenal glands. Diabetes mellitus.

Medical pathology of muscle-skeletal system:
Diseases of muscles. Diseases of bones.

Medical pathology of the nervous system:
Diseases of the central nervous system. Diseases of the peripheral system. Epilepsy.

Medical pathology of hemopoietic system
Disorders of red blood cells. Disorders of platelets. Disorders of white blood cells. Coagulopathies.
General Semeiology
Definition of semeiology; brief history on the evolution of the semeiologic technique; direct or physical semeiological processes: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation, measurement, thermometry, polls, catheterizations, exploratory bites. indirect or instrumental semeiological processes: urine, feces, blood, transudate, exudate, gastric and ruminal juice, microbiological tests, allergy tests and serological tests.
Semiological test scheme. History: environmental, collective, individual, remote, proximate, physiological, pathological. Signaling and identification of the subject.
Examinations (present state): skeletal development and constitution; nutritional status and muscle tone, sensory status, attitudes, and distinguishing features; skin and subcutaneous connective tissue, mucosal membranes; lymphnodes, temperature, pulse, breathing, major organ functions .
Special Semiology: examination of the body systems in the species of veterinary interest.

Examination of the digestive system
Appetite, thirst, degeneration of taste; intake of food and beverages; alterations of mastication, swallowing disorders, rumination, belching, vomiting, defecation. Examination of the oral cavity: inspection of the labial (size and appearance of salivary flow, lesions of the lips, mobility of the lower jaw); examination of the buccal vestibule and mouth (temperature, salivary secretion, smell, feel, appearance); review the language. Examination of the teeth. Examination of the pharynx and esophagus. Examination of the abdomen in horses and small animals: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation. Examination of the perineum. Rectal examination in horses, cattles and dogs. Rhino-esophageal intubation in the horse; gastric intubation in small animals. Examination of stomachs of cattle: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation of the rumen; collection and examination of rumen content; e Evidence of diaphragmatic and peritoneal pain in cattle: compression, percussion with heavy hammer, and Kalchschmidt test. Examination of the intestine in cattle; intraperitoneal exploration in cattle; exploration endoruminoreticolare in cattle; rectal examination in cattle; survey rhino-esophageal in cattle; survey in the bovine rumen. Puncture of the abdomen (paracentesis) in the horse, in cattle, in small animals. Examination of the payment of the serous cavities: physical examination, chemical, microscopic, bacteriological. Stool examination: macroscopic examination, microscopic examination, bacteriological examination and culture, blood research. Examination of the liver: physical examination, functional tests, liver biopsy. Examination of the spleen.
Examination of the respiratory system
Semeiologic examination of the upper respiratory tract: examination of the nostrils and the nasal mucosa; examination of the breasts; examination of the larynx; provocation, characters and genesis of cough; examination of the trachea. Inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation of the chest; functional examination of the breath.
Examination of the cardiovascular system
Capillaries Arteries: inspection, palpation (arterial pulse), auscultation. Veins, swelling and increase in volume, decrease or disappearance; venous pulsations. Heart: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation of the heart region; outbreaks of auscultation, heart sounds and tones; extracardiac noise. Laboratory Tests of cardiovascular function: measurement of blood pressure, phonocardiographs, electrocardiography.
Examination of the blood and blood-forming organs. Blood-forming organs: lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and laboratory evaluation semeiologic of homeostasis.
Examination of the urinary tract
Supplement medical history. Direct physical examination: inspection, palpation, rectal examination. Functional examination: urine test chemical and physical blood tests, renal function tests.
Examination of the integumentary system. Direct physical examination: inspection, Smelling, palpation, percussion. Microscopic examination of material obtained by cutaneous scarification.
Examination of the endocrine glands
Semeiological direct and functional examination of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas.
Examination of the neuro-muscular system
State of the sensorium, standing and gait; Postural reactions. Sensory examination. Examination of cranial and spinal reflexes. EMG and EEG investigations.
Methodological principles of decision-making procedure in veterinary medicine
Symptoms, signs and clinical data; Causes of errors in the detection of symptoms, Normality and Pathology; Measurement of symptoms, The clinical explanation; Programming the diagnosis, The minimization of errors and costs of the diagnosis, The diagnostic choice ; Medical practice and practice of clinical research.
Haematology: Blood cell count; Enzymes and substrates; Laboratory investigations for the evaluation of: liver function; Kidney and urinary tract function + urinalyses; disorders associated with cardiopathy; gastrointestinal disorders; endocrin disorders; muscular and skeleton diseases; autoimmune disorders; metabolic disorders; acid-base balance. Biological fluid examination.


Patologia medica: RADOSTITS:Veterinary medicine. A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats - Edizioni varie; SMITH: Large animal internal medicine - Edizioni varie; REED - BAYLY: Equine Internal Medicine, Saunders Co, 1998; ETTINGER - FELDMAN: Textbook of veterinary internal medicine - Edizioni varie; NELSON-COUTO: Small animal internal medicine - Edizioni varie; BIRCHARD: Saunders manual of small animal practice - Edizioni varie Ciaramella. Semeiologia Clinica Veterinaria. Poletto Editore, 2014, Vermezzo (MI)

Teaching methods

Lectures and practical training

Assessment methods and criteria

The examination, aimed at assessing the achievement of the goals in terms of knowledge and competences, is an oral and written exam based on questions strictly connected to the contents of the course.The questions will evaluate the achievement ot the competences also in a practical prospective.

Other information

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