cod. 1008438

Academic year 2022/23
1° year of course - Second semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
integrated course unit
12 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

At the end of the course the student should have acquired knowledge regarding general and special toxicology. In detail, the student should be able to:
1. Know the mechanisms of action by which a xenobiotic can be found as a residue in animal foods. Know the most important classes of residues and contaminants. Be able to employ the specific language of discipline and appropriate scientific terminology. (knowledge and comprehension)
2. Understand the toxic properties of xenobiotic residues. (applying knowledge and understanding)
3. Be able to clearly explain the results of studies and the characteristics of a residue or contaminant even to a non-expert audience. (communication skills)
4. Know how to assess the presence of a certain residue based on acquired knowledge and clinical needs. (making judgment)
5. Link the different topics treated in the course among themselves and to other disciplines of the academic degree course. (learning skills).

D1 Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Know the environmental impact of livestock and the effect of climatic changes on animal productions.
2. Describe the main strategies to reduce the environmental impact of livestock.
D2 – Applying knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Measure the environmental impact of livestock.
2. Recognize the effect of environmental conditions on animals and their productions.
3. Suggest strategies to reduce the environmental impact adjusted to the characteristis of the livestock.
4. Suggest livestock housing systems that can reduce the effect of negative climatic conditions.
D3 – Making judgements
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Explain parameters concerning the environmental impact of livestock.
2. Explain physiological and productive data of animals to assess.
D4 – Communication skills
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Express clearly and with appropriate terminology during description of concepts concerning the sustainability of livestock.
D5 – Learning skills
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Learn concepts relative to the sustainability of livestock;
2. Understand of new livestock farming systems (e.g. precision livestock) in relation to their impact on the sustainability.


As per Degree Course. Please refer to

Course unit content

The Course will provide students with the essential concepts of the Toxicology of residues and contaminants; They will be dealt with topics concerning drug residues in food, their Italian and EU legislation, how to register a veterinary drug, the use of drugs in aquaculture and their residues, residues in honey and eggs, drugs granted for use in animals and those prohibited, the main environmental pollutants (dioxins, polychlorobiphenols, organochlorate, heavy metals, mycotoxins, growth promoters). The concept of MRL, suspension time, ADI is explained to the students; examples of the calculation of MRL of a residue will take place in classroom and in the computer lab. Moreover, students will be asked to browse the EMA website to search information on drug residues during practice lessons.
General aspects of ruminants and monogastric housing. Animal productions and the biocapacity of the planet.
Environmental impact of livestock. Effect of climatic changes on livestock. Concerns about the sustainability of animal productions in livestock buildings.
Systems for the mitigation of the environmental impact of livestock. Improving of the sustainability of livestock buildings. Genetics and housing strategies to reduce the the environmental impact of livestock.

Full programme

Please refer to the Section "Contenuti del Corso"


"Residui di farmaci e contaminanti ambientali nelle produzioni animali", a cura del prof. Carlo Nebbia, Edises Editrice.
Students can download pdf files of the lessons from Elly Platform.
The students are, however, reminded that the textbook must be integrated with classroom lectures.

The students can find the power point presentation projected in classroom on ELLY web portal
Allevamento animale e sostenibilità ambientale: i principi. Stefanon, Mele, Pulina. Ed. FrancoAngeli
Allevamento animale e sostenibilità ambientale: le tecniche. Stefanon, Mele, Pulina. Ed. FrancoAngeli

Teaching methods

Frontal lessons by using slides and practical lessons in laboratory and classroom.
During the lectures in the classroom, with the use of audio-visual facilities the characteristics of livestock farm animals, the characteristics of their productions will be presented. The lessons will also be supplemented by seminars to deepen some specific issues.
The activities will take place in presence unless otherwise provided due to the Covid-19 , where the Teams and Elly platforms will be used. In particular, the course slides and parts of teaching material will in any case be loaded on the Elly page of the course. During the lessons, mainly frontal moments will alternate with interactive moments with the students. To promote active participation in the course, various individual and small group activities will be proposed, through the use of the resources available in Elly, such as discussion forums and logbooks. The lectures will be carried out with the support of slides: if possible, practical lessons will be carried out in the laboratory in small groups and in full compliance with the rules in force for the prevention of contagion from Covid-19.

Assessment methods and criteria

The evaluation of the knowledge acquired by the student in the course of "Environmental qualification strategies: control of residues and contaminants" is made by means of an oral exam. The student, therefore, after online registration to the official exam calendar published on the Department of Veterinary Science website, will have to perform an oral exam consisting of answering to three questions regarding topics of the course cited above. The student will have to show to have understood the core concepts of the treated topics of the course. To the students with diagnosis of specific learning disability (DSA) certified under law n. 170/2010, proper specific support will be provided.
The assessment of expected learning results for the course of "Systems and technologies for a sustaonable animal husbandry" described in D1 and parts of those described in D2, D3, D4 and D5, is carried out by oral examination, with ten questions: five for the assessment of the knowledge, the understanding, the capacity of making judgements and communication skills of the students; five for the assessment of the capacity of the student to apply knowledge to solve a practical problem in livestock farming.

Specific support methods are provided for students with SLD, SEN or disabilities. They must send requests to be able to take advantage of compensatory and / or dispensatory measures during the examination at least 10 working days before the date scheduled for the examination by e-mail addressed to the teacher in charge of the course and in cc to the Department Coordinator ( list of contact persons and related email addresses available here and at the Reception and Inclusion Center (

The exam is carried out face-to-face or online via the TEAMS platform in the event of a recurrence of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Other information

9 examination sessions are scheduled throughout the academic year, as reported on ESSE3 platform website. 5 more sessions are scheduled for so called "fuori corso e ripetenti" students. A minimun of 14 days is required between two subsequent examination sessions. The examining board consists of at least two teachers.