cod. 1008439

Academic year 2022/23
1° year of course - First semester
- Giorgio MORINI
Academic discipline
Clinica ostetrica e ginecologia veterinaria (VET/10)
Discipline zootecniche e delle produzioni animali
Type of training activity
60 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

The aims this course is to allow the student to know and understand the essential elements of the new reproductive techniques of livestock, to transmit the knowledge for advanced reproductive management in the bovine, ovine, porcine and equine species and the ways in which they can find application in intensive or extensive farming. The course aims to lead the student to understand the applicability of different techniques in livestock and acquire the ability to make an evaluation of convenience and choice of a technique compared to another in the different species of zootechnical interest. The student must be able to assist a veterinarian in the planning and implementation of advanced reproductive techniques strategies chosen for breeding progress with design and judgment autonomy.
At the end of the course the student is expected to be able to:
- know the phases of the different ART;
- know how to plan a feasibility and applicability plan of the different ARTs together with the species and the type of breeding considered;
- know how to manage a tool for recording company data (eg Dairy Comp 305 management software);
- know how to provide one or more data collection tools, through a targeted data collection plan;
- making judgements to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data and to be able to control research hypotheses through statistical analysis;
- communication skills on the results and progress of the strategies chosen and applying knowledge to do reports of the progressive results (monthly, quarterly, yearly)


Complete knowledge of modern basic reproductive techniques in livestock breeding, confidence with heat and ovulation synchronization protocols

Course unit content

Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increased due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world also. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world, however, advanced technologies including embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector and in these counties proper the ART have had a big boost in the last two decade, such as to export them and sell the "know-how" in the old continent.

In livestock breeding, assisted reproductive technologies (ART) can be defined as techniques that manipulate reproductive-related events and structures to achieve pregnancy with final goal of producing healthy offspring. The present course includes manipulation of female reproductive tract physiology, artificial insemination, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro production of embryos, in vitro assisted fertilization, cloning, transgenesis, xenografting-cell transplantation, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and sperm sexing. This course'll show that several ART are currently being applied in livestock industry with acceptable results.

Full programme

Description of the course and timetable of the topics

Evaluation of reference texts and suggested teaching material

Entry test on basic knowledge concerning:

Physiology of Reproduction in Mammals
Regulation of reproduction in the female - ovarian dynamics
Reproduction in the male:
Species differences: Bovine, Ovine, Swine, Equine
Removal of seminal material in the various income species
Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of semen (fertility test).
Techniques for calculating inseminating doses.
Methods of conservation and handling of the inseminating doses (Refrigerated and frozen semen)
Artificial Insemination (A.I.) in farm animals
A.I. programs in the species
Bovine, Ovine and Swine
(Induction and synchronization of oestrus and ovulation)
Characteristics of placentation and gestation in Bovine, Ovine and Swine species
How to assist a birth - operational protocol (bovine, equine)
Normal birth and dystocia
Evaluation of Placenta (normal Vs anomalous)
Principles of proper management of newborns
Failure of colostral passive immunity (foal and calf)
The puerperium and the problems of the peripartum and postpartum
Health management of a farm - active and passive biosecurity.
European legislation and Italian legislation on animal reproduction

Specific Topics of the Course:

1. Semen Sexing
2. Sperm Encapsulation
3. Male Infertility: Sperm Transcriptomics - Seminal biomarkers
4. Ovum Pick Up (OPU)
5. In Vitro Maturation, Fertilizazion and Culture (IVMFC)
6. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
7. Intrafollicular Oocyte Transfer (IFOT)
8. Embryo Transfer Technology (ETT)
9. Embryo Crypreservation
10. Embryo Sexing
11. Embryogenomics
12. Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
13. Cloning
14. Stem Cell Technology
15. Transgenics
16. Nanotechnology in animal reproduction


Elisabetta Tosti, Raffaele Boni
Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization: A long history for a short event

P.L. Senger - Pathways to pregnancy and parturition - Second revised edition - ISBN 0-9657648-2-6 - 2003.

R.S. Youngquist - W. R. Threlfall - CURRENT THERAPY IN LARGE ANIMAL THERIOGENOLOGY, SECOND EDITION ISBN 10: 0-7216-9323-7 ISBN 13: 978-0-7216-9323-1 - 2007.
P.Hyttel, F.Sinowatz, M.Vejlsted, K.Betteridge, Essentials of Domestic Animal Embryology ISBN 978-0-7020-2899-1, 2010.

Ian Gordon, Reproductive Technologies in Farm Animals - ISBN 0 85199 862 3 - CABI publishing, 2004.




Teaching methods

The activities will take place in telepresence through the use of Teams and Elly platforms. In particular, lessons will be held in synchronous mode (via Teams). During the lessons in synchronous (direct) mode, mainly frontal moments will alternate with interactive moments with the students. To promote active participation in the course, will be proposed various activities both individual and small group, through the use of resources present in Elly, such as discussion forums

• Socratic heuristic lesson
• Case study
• Problem solving
• Seminars in depth

The didactic activities will favor active learning dynamics preceded and/or interspersed with Socratic heuristic lessons. The verbal comparison will be an integral part of the lesson especially on the basic themes of animal reproduction able to bring out any knowledge about the topics in question by the learners.
Seminars on more complex issues will be proposed and distributed also on specific needs of trainees.
The slides used to support the lessons will be uploaded fortnightly on the Elly platform. To download the slides you need to register for the online course.
Slides are considered an integral part of the teaching material. Non-attending students are reminded to check the teaching materials available and the instructions provided by the teacher via the Elly platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

The final examination will consist of a free oral interview conducted at a distance (via Teams) which will provide for a special convocation, through registration on the Esse3 exam booking service, of candidates through institutional email addresses (
The result and the vote of the oral exam will be communicated at the end of the exam and within three weeks after the test, through publication on Esse3.
Please note that online registration to the appeal is MANDATORY both in the case of written test and in the case of oral test.

N.B During the lessons, the teacher will administer intermediate tests, formative, useful to monitor the achievement of the learning objectives in itinere and provide feedback to students, before the official appeal not participating in the final evaluation. The dates of the partial tests will be communicated by the teacher during the lessons

Other information

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