The course will illustrate the main concepts related to understanding the role of plants on our planet. Through the introduction of the fundamental concepts of ecology, students will understand that the biological homogenization of ecosystems, emblematic of the intensive management of agricultural activities, leads to the loss of numerous ecosystem services and the reduction of environmental sustainability. Keeping biodiversity high is one of the strategies for promoting environmental sustainability. It is possible to measure biodiversity and, therefore, to monitor the effects of the current management of each agronomic practice. In this way it will be possible to trigger a virtuous process of pursuing the objectives of maintaining ecosystem services.