cod. 1007924

Academic year 2022/23
2° year of course - Second semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
integrated course unit
8 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

Modules are organized according to the requirements of the Dublin Descriptors (D1-D5):

The module aims to bring the student to know and understand the basic principles for the correct handling and processing of histological and cytological samples, as well as the theoretical bases of morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular biology techniques to support cytopathology. In lab sessions the student will have the opportunity to apply the knowledge gained during the theoretical lesson.
The student will acquire:
ability to develop the theoretical basis to follow the evolution of scientific knowledge in the technical and instrumental field applied to Pathological Anatomy, in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the activities that characterize a Histopathology lab, including innovative techniques molecules that respond to growing demands in the field of diagnostic and oncological therapy.

The module organized according to the requirements of the Dublin Descriptors (D1-D5), aims to provide the student with the basic knowledge to understand the pathologies of unconventional agents (prions) in domestic animals and wildlife. The module aims to make the student independent in the choices of biomolecular analytical methods in the diagnosis of TSEs and to develop, independently of judgment, the communicative capacity of the results.

Provide the student with the knowledge and understanding of the aims, advantages and limitations of diagnostic cytology, cytological sample preparation techniques and basic cognitive principles.

The student must know and have competence on the cellular and molecular aspects by which the innate and specific immune responses develop and he will autonomously be able to apply these skills in the evaluation of parameters that define the efficiency of the immune response against infective pathogens, through the use of immunological techniques.

The module developes in the student knowledge and understanding about nucleic acid kinetic mechanisms as the general basis of molecular diagnosis. Human genomic investigation methods. The choice of the method to be used in relation to diagnostic needs. Applying this knowledge acquired critically, the student must be able to use the most popular molecular analysis methods. Use open access bio-computer programs.


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Course unit content


The first lesson will focus on activities featuring a Histopathology lab, including its organization, its management IT system, instrumentation and specific safety and prevention standards. Some methods will be studied: in situ fluorescence hybridization technique (FISH), cell cultures, immunohistocytological characterization of tumor.
The second part of the course will be devoted to laboratory activities related to the techniques described above.
The third part involves observing the fluorescence microscope of FISH and immunocytological preparations; observation of the inverted microscope of cell cultures.


Critical presentation of quantitative and qualitative biological-molecular techniques (WB, ELISA, etc.) and prion immunolocalization in the diagnosis of TSEs in domestic animals. "Scrapie gene profiles of susceptibility and resistance in sheep. “Scrapie” eradication plans using a molecular biological approach. New threats: CWD.


Introduction to Diagnostic Cytology, sampling techniques, preparation and staining of cytological Samples, basic interpretative in Cytology. Cytology features of inflammatiory status and neoplasms. Cytological criteria of malignancy.


Cellular and molecular aspects of innate and specific immune responses against infectious pathogens, by which are defined the immune parameters for evaluating the efficiency of the immune response by means of specific immunological techniques.


The didactic module aims to apply the acquired knowledge of the human genome analysis through a series of methods that the student will need to know to understand the potential of the applications he will use in his profession.

Full programme

The course is arranged in five educational modules and the space available in the box is limited and can not receive full programs. References are given in the boxes of this Syllabus: CONTENUTI; OBIETTIVI FORMATIVI


Teachers make available to the students, for direct delivery or on the elly portal, the teaching material used in the lessons (Power Poit).
For the modules of "Histopathology Techniques" and "Biotechnologies in Clinical Pathology" books are proposed:
AA.VV. Anatomia Patologica: le basi. A cura di L. Ruco, A. Scarpa. UTET Scienze Mediche, Torino, 2007
AA.VV. Manuale di Tecnica Cito-Istologica. A cura di S. Daniel, T. Zanin.
Documentazione Scientifica Editrice (DSE), Bologna, 1997
"MEDICINA DI LABORATORIO" Mc Graw Hill - a cura di Giorgio Federici - ultima edizione;

Teaching methods

The five modules of the integrated course include ex-cathedra and lab activities. For the "TSE Diagnostics" module a didactic visit is to be made at the TSE Diagnostic Laboratory of the Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Lombardy and Emilia Romagna (IZSLER), Section of Modena (Via Emilio Diena, 16, Modena).
Frequency in laboratory activities is mandatory and verified in presence.
In the event of an emergency of any nature the educational activities will be performed on-line on the TEAMS Office 365 platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

Examination of expected learning outcomes, provided by indicators D1 and D2, is carried out by means of a written test, multiple-choice test, and possibly an oral request for “cum laude”. The test includes thirty multiple-choicequestions, numbered from one to thirty (1-30), with three response options (a, b, c). In the multiple-choice test, there are six questions about the five modules of the integrated course. The student has time one hour to complete the written test (multiple-choice test). The test correction takes into consideration three distinct responses and three different scoring assignments: a) A correct answer, 1 (one) point; b) Answer not given, 0 (zero) points; c) Wrong answer,0 (zero) points. The vote is expressed in thirty. “Cum laude” is given to the student who answered exactly all thirty test questions and a further oral question on a topic covered in one of the didactic modules. The module is a student's choice. A student with a specific learning disability diagnosis (DSA) student, certified under Law No. 170/2010, is granted an hour and a half to complete the written test (multiple-choice test). Expected learning outcomes, as expressed in the D3, D4 and D5 indicators, are evaluated on the other hand with the aim of monitoring individual and collective learning in order to organize the training path according to verified professional skills. In the event of emergencies of any nature that require learners and teachers to be far away from the teaching structures, the exam sessions will be completed online on the TEAMS Office 365 platform.

Other information

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