cod. 1006668

Academic year 2018/19
1° year of course - Second semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
integrated course unit
4 credits
course unit

Learning objectives

The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition: of knowledge about the basics of etiologic agents of infectious diseases (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and viruses), with particular reference to the diseases of interest in obstetrics and gynecology; of knowledge and understanding the mechanism of cellular damage response, the pathogenesis of some human genetic and metabolic diseases the biology of tumours the mechanism of innate and specific immune system, the pathogenesis of the main immunopathologic diseases, the immunoemathology A and problems related to blood transfusion. To provide basic knowledge on the use of ultrasonography; - to train the student at the first approach with the pregnant patient so that he/she acquires the ability to begin informing the patient about the available procedures, understanding the execution times, identifying the patients at risk who may need further investigation; to execute initial counseling on prenatal diagnosis techniques.


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Course unit content

Introduction to microbiology and virology. The general characters of bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Microbial pathogenicity. Morphological and structural features of viruses. Viral pathogenicity.
Common infectious diseases of interest in obstetrics and gynecology. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases
General alteration of growth and death, cellular and molecular and cellular oncology. Genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology.
Blood and hematopoiesis and components of innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology.
Basic skills in ultrasound: basic theoretical knowledge of obstetric ultrasound;-presenting various methods of midwifery surveys provided by the Italian guidelines with particular reference to the patient’s execution time and selection for ultrasound

Full programme

Bacteriology. General characteristics of the prokaryotic cell. Morphological and structural aspects of the prokaryotic cell (wall, external membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, flagella, pili and phymbria, capsule and spore). Outline about the metabolism and the reproduction of bacteria. Pathogenic action of bacteria. Interaction bacteria-host. The resident bacterial population in the human organism.
Pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (adhesins, esoenzymes, bacterial eso- and endotoxins). Outline about the principles for the laboratory diagnosis of the main bacterial infections: direct methods (demonstration of bacteria and/or its constituents in the biological material); indirect methods (demonstration of a recent specific immune response). Outline about the main antibacterial drugs (antibiotics and chemotherapeutics) and determination of the in vitro susceptibility of bacteria: outline about the antibiogram. The main bacteria responsible for human infectious diseases. Staphylococci (S. aureus), Streptococci (pneumococcus, group B streptococci), Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Outline about Mycobacteria. Outline about
anaerobic bacteria. Outline about Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections: Pseudomonas and S. aureus. Outline about the bacterial infections of obstetrical-gynaecological interest and involving the maternal-foetal district by: group B streptococci; Treponema pallidum. Outline about the infections by TORCH complex.
Mycology: General characteristics of fungi. The fungal cell and colony; yeasts and filamentous fungi. Outline about the infections by Candida albicans of the urogenital district. Parasitology: definition of parasite; interaction parasite-host; ways of penetration and elimination of the parasites. Presentation of some parasitic protozoa of medical interest: outline about the life cycles of: blood and tissues parasitic protozoa: Toxoplasma gondii, uro-genital parasitic protozoa: Trichomonas vaginalis. Virology. Principal biological, morphological and structural characteristics of the
viruses; definition of virus, viral sizes and shapes, chemical composition, nucleic acid types. The classification of the viruses (outline). The phases of the viral infection. Cultivation of the viruses: outline about the methods used. Outline about the main methods used for the laboratory diagnosis of the viral infections: search for the virus or its constituents; demonstration of a specific humoral immune response. Ways of transmission of the viruses; ways of penetration and elimination of the viruses. Outline about the active and passive antiviral immunoprophylaxis. Outline about the infections by the principal sexuallyand vertically-transmitted viruses: hepatitis B viruses (HBV), hepatitis C viruses (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papilloma virus (HPV), herpetic viruses (Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex viruses, type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1; HSV-2)).
Outline about the main control and prevention systems of the bacterial, viral and parasitic infections in the hospital setting: the disinfection, the disinfestation and the sterilization. Outline about the principal biological samples and methods for the collection for the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial, viral and parasitic infections.
Cellular Pathology
Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Definition, nomenclature, and biological properties of benign and malignant neoplasms. Molecular basis of cancer. Protooncogenes, oncogenes. Tumor suppressor genes. Diagnosis and biological basis of anti-neoplastic therapies.
Transmission patterns of single-gene disorders (Familial hypercholesterolemia, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease).
Atherosclerosis, trombosis, angina and myocardial infarction. Diabetes mellitus
Blood and Hematopoiesis. Stem cells.
Innate immunity. Acquired immunity. The structural and functional aspects of Antibodies. T and B lymphocytes and their receptors. The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). Activation of B and T lymphocytes. Vaccinations. Hypersensitivity. Immunologic tolerance and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Transplantation. Immunodeficiency
General features of acute and chronic inflammation
ABO blood groups and serum antibodies. The rhesus (Rh) blood groups. Other blood groups. Haemolytic disease of the newborn.
Basic knowledge on the taking of a blood sample and fitness of donors.
Blood components and plasma by-products: properties, directions for use, preparation procedures and preservation.
Complications following blood transfusion and their Handling
Use of ultrasound in obstetrics; Prenatal screening tests for chromosomal abnormalities;
Invasive diagnostic tests; Screening tests for preterm delivery and preeclampsia;
Obstetric first trimester scan;
Anomaly scan.


M.Bendinelli, A. Calderaro, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano - - Monduzzi Editore - 2006-2012 - Microbiologia Medica: Batteriologia, Parassitologia, Virologia. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio.
Parola M. “Patologia Generale” EDISES
Pontieri G.M. “Elementi di Patologia Generale” III edizione PICCIN
Pontieri G.M. Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia generale. III edizione PICCIN
Costantini W., Calistri D., Ostetrica. Le basi scientifico-culturali. Vol. 1-2-3. Ed. Piccin, 2013.ISUOG 2015 Editeam Editor.Educational material, ultrasound images of specific cases and bibliographic references.

Teaching methods

The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures by using PowerPoint trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson. Moreover, will be dicussed ultrasound images to better understand and apply theoretical knowledge

Assessment methods and criteria

Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination . No interim evaluation is programmed. Questions on the topics relating to the course content will be used to test the student’s knowledge and understanding in the field, and her/his ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts. Failure to answer to one question, or proven inability to demonstrate at least a basic knowledge on the subject, will prevent the successful completion of the exam. Upon successful completion of the examination, the final grade will be decided jointly by the examiners, according to the degree of achievement of the objectives (excellent, good, fair, fully sufficient, barely sufficient). Honours will be reserved to students demonstrating particular communication skills and independent learning ability, together with an overall excellent evaluation.

Other information

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