cod. 1009304

Academic year 2023/24
2° year of course - First semester
- Alessandro DUCE
Academic discipline
Storia delle relazioni internazionali (SPS/06)
A scelta dello studente
Type of training activity
Student's choice
36 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

The course pursues learning outcomes according to the indications of the Dublin Descriptors: models and logic
of contemporary international history, capacity for interpretation and comparative synthesis, exhibition of
problems, activities and group discussions, acquisition and mastery of use of basic notions and complex issues.
Despite the efforts made, there remains the danger of an "armed planet", the inadequacy of the agreements reached, the frequent recourse to new forms of belligerence and the disappointment due to the increase in military spending.
Is the fraternal and responsible coexistence of peoples, free from the nuclear threat, a realistic goal or a utopia?


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Course unit content

The hope of peoples to live in peace has never been extinguished; this has not prevented the use of war instruments although attempts have been made to reduce violence, prevent its causes and promote peace.
The course examines this evolution over the past two centuries from the Congress of Vienna to today; emphasizes
instruments adopted for disarmament, on the security needs of States and communities and on the desired peaceful coexistence. It should be pointed out that there is no customary obligation to disarm or control
armaments as the latter are determined by the will of the powers concerned. Under this
profile Disarmament measures are fragmented and complex (voluntary, reciprocal, general, regional, time-
temporary, permanent, etc.); they also entailed prohibitions, controls and verifications (inspections, reviews and clauses
of withdrawal). During the course the criteria adopted to promote an "international peaceful order" will be studied: the European Concert, the balancing alliances, the Congresses, the Hague peace system, the measures promoted by the League of Nations, the Briand-Kellogg Pact and the system established by the UN (Disarmament commissions, international conferences, special sessions, programmatic declarations).
These political agreements have generally led to the adoption of arms containment and reduction measures. In this regard, there is talk of conventional and unconventional weapons. The first group includes those usually supplied to armies for which various restrictive measures have been adopted over time: Petersburg Declaration (1868), Geneva Conference (1925), Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-personnel Mines (1997), Convention against cluster munitions (2008), UN Arms Trade Treaty (2013).
The weapons of "mass destruction" belong to the second group, that is, capable of causing a large number
of victims and the devastation of vast territories (atomic, nuclear, bacteriological, biological and radiological).
Numerous agreements have been reached in this regard: Prohibition of atomic experiments in the atmosphere,
in space and on celestial bodies (1963) and non-use of the seabed (1970), TNP (1968), INF (1987), SALT Agreements I and II (1972 and 1979), START I and II (1991 and 1992), SORT (2002), Conventions against chemical and bacteriological weapons,
Convention for the destruction of all nuclear weapons (2017). It should also be noted the prohibition of militarization of certain areas: Antarctica (1959), outer space, the Moon and other celestial bodies
(1967). The agreements to denuclearise some territories (Agreements for America
Latin, by sectors of Southeast Asia and the African continent). The evolution of
conventional conflicts versus asymmetric, hybrid and cybernetic ones.

Full programme

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Recommended texts:
course program developed during recorded and available online lessons.
Or: M. De Leonardis, Ultima Ratio Regum. Forza militare e relazioni internazionali. Bologna 2013.

Teaching methods

Teaching methods: lectures, interdisciplinary seminars. Voluntary written exercises.

Assessment methods and criteria

Exams: oral evaluation out of thirty.
Exam Commission: prof. A. Duce, prof. Umberto Castagnino Berlinghieri, prof. Giulia Bassi, prof. Bruno Pierri.

Other information

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