cod. 22063

Academic year 2022/23
1° year of course - Second semester
- Flora DE CONTO
Academic discipline
Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica (MED/07)
Scienze biomediche
Type of training activity
10 hours
of face-to-face activities
1 credits
hub: -
course unit

Integrated course unit module: BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES II

Learning objectives

The aim of the course is to give to the students the knowledge about the general characteristics of the aetiological agents of the principal infectious diseases (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses) with particular interest in the infectious diseases
of the obstetrical-gynaecological apparatus.


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Course unit content

Illustration of the general characteristics of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses and their relationships with humans. Outline of the principles for the laboratory diagnosis of infections: direct methods (demonstration in the biological material of microorganisms and viruses and / or their components) and indirect methods (demonstration of a recent specific immune response). Outline of the main antibacterial drugs (antibiotics and chemotherapeutics) and determination of the in vitro sensitivity of bacteria. Illustration of the characteristics of infection agents of obstetric-gynecological interest and of the maternal-fetal district. Notes on the main infection control and prevention systems in the hospital environment: disinfection, disinfestation and sterilization.

Full programme

General characteristics of the prokaryotic cell. Morphological and structural aspects of the prokaryotic cell (wall, external membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, nucleus, flagella, pili and phymbria, capsule and spore). Outline about the reproduction of bacteria. Pathogenic action of bacteria.
Interaction bacteria-host. The resident microbial population in the human organism.
Pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (adhesins, esoenzymes, bacterial eso- and endotoxins).
Outline about the principles for the laboratory diagnosis of the main bacterial infections: direct methods (demonstration of bacteria and/or its constituents in the biological material); indirect methods (demonstration of a recent specific immune response). Outline about the main antibacterial drugs (antibiotics and chemotherapeutics) and determination of the in vitro susceptibility of bacteria: outline about the antibiogram. The main bacteria responsible for human infectious diseases: Staphylococci (S. aureus), Streptococci (pneumococcus, group B streptococci), Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Outline about the bacterial infections of obstetrical-gynaecological interest and involving the
maternal-foetal district by: group B streptococci; Treponema pallidum. Outline about the infections by TORCH complex.

General characteristics of fungi. The fungal cell and colony; yeasts and filamentous fungi. Outline about the infections by Candida albicans of the urogenital district.

Definition of parasite; interaction parasite-host; ways of penetration and elimination of the parasites. Presentation of some parasitic protozoa of medical interest: outline about the life cycles of blood and tissues parasitic protozoa (Toxoplasma gondii) and uro-genital parasitic protozoa (Trichomonas vaginalis).

Principal biological, morphological and structural characteristics of the viruses; definition of virus, viral sizes and shapes, chemical composition, nucleic acid types. The classification of the viruses (outline). The phases of the viral infection. Cultivation of the viruses: outline about the methods used.
Outline about the main methods used for the laboratory diagnosis of the viral infections: search for the virus or its constituents; demonstration of a specific humoral immune response. Ways of transmission of the viruses; ways of penetration and elimination of the viruses. Outline about the active and passive antiviral immunoprophylaxis. Outline about the infections by the principal sexually and vertically-transmitted viruses: hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papilloma virus (HPV), herpetic viruses (cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex viruses, type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1; HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus) and rubella virus.
Outline about the main control and prevention systems of the infections in the hospital setting: the disinfection, the disinfestation and the sterilization.


M.Bendinelli, A. Calderaro, C. Chezzi, G. Dettori, N. Manca, G. Morace, L. Polonelli, M.A. Tufano - Monduzzi Editore - Microbiologia Medica: Batteriologia, Parassitologia, Virologia. Gli agenti infettivi dell'uomo: biologia, azione patogena, laboratorio.

Teaching methods

Lectures will be held on-site in compliance with safety standards, provided that further instructions on the ongoing health emergency are not implemented. Supporting material will be available on the specific student-reserved platform (Elly) and will include slide presentations and video-recording of the lectures.

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral examination

Other information

The teacher is available for clarification by making an appointment by e-mail.