cod. 1007977

Academic year 2021/22
1° year of course - First semester
Academic discipline
Patologia generale (MED/04)
Discipline biotecnologiche comuni
Type of training activity
47 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

The fundamental objective of the course is to provide students with the acquisition of conceptual and scientific tools to explain the mechanisms underlying disease and the response of organisms to biological damage. The understanding of these topics, integrated with those of other basic teachings, will allow students to apply their knowledge in order to better understand more specific teachings and to elaborate projects in the field of biotechnology.


Knowledge of molecular biology is strongly recommended

Course unit content

The course will provide the essential elements concerning the molecular mechanisms of diseases and devensive responses. Examples of some genetic and metabolic diseases highly frequent in humans will be provided. Some of the most frequent genetic diseases in the human species and the methods of diagnosis of genetic and chromosomal disorders will be described in detail.

Full programme

Intrinsic causes of disease: single-gene disorders with classic and non classic inheritance; multifactorial diseases; cytogenetic disorders.
Pathophysiology of tissue injury and repair. The response to tissue injury. Acute and chronic inflammation. Events, mechanisms, types and evolution of the inflammatory process. Chemical mediators of inflammation. Types of inflammatory lesions. Tissue repair and regeneration: Stem cells and tissue regeneration. Tissue repair and its alterations; Wound healing; Fibrosis. Atherosclerosis.
Oncology. Definitions, nomenclature, epidemiology. Tumor etiology. Heredity and tumors. The cell cycle: control mechanisms and their alterations. Stem cells and cancer. Protooncogenes, oncogenes and oncoproteins. Oncosuppressor genes and their products. Altered DNA repair mechanisms and tumors. Defects of apoptosis and cancer. Intiation and promotion. The neoplastic cell. Tumor progression. Tumor angiogenesis. Invasivity. Metastasis.
Metabolic disorders: Disorders of lipid metabolism; Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism: metabolic alterations in diabetes.
The immune response. The Major Histocompatibility Complex. Innate immunity: Phagocitosis; Complement activation. Specific Immunity: Cell-mediated Immunity. Antigen recognition and effector functions of T lymphocytes. Humoral Immunity. Immunoglobulin types. Antigen recognition and effector functions of immunoglobulins. The memory of immune system.


Kumar, Abbas, Fausto, Aster. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. 8th Edition, Elsevier

Teaching methods

Lectures will be held on-site in compliance with safety standards, provided that further instructions on the ongoing health emergency are not implemented. Supporting material will be available on the specific, student-reserved platform (Elly) and will include slide presentations in Power Point, and audio-video aids.

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of learning outcomes will be made through oral examination, during which the student will be asked questions on at least two different topics of the Program examination. The test will be considered positive only if the student will be able to answer both questions in a satisfactory manner, demonstrating in-depth knowledge and appropriate understanding. The final grade will take into account the evaluation of two different teachers who make up the Board of Examiners.

Other information

- - -