cod. 1004962

Academic year 2021/22
1° year of course - First semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
GALLI Daniela
integrated course unit
7 credits
course unit

Learning objectives

To acquire good knowledge of the morphology and the structure of the organs and the apparatuses of the human body.
At the end of the course the student must demonstrate he/she has learnt and understood the basic principles about the morphology and function of the cell and tissues

Knowledge and understanding.
Students need learn methods for studying the morphological and functional organization and the physiology of the human body. In particular: the cell, the tissues, the organs, with an overview of embryology; the histology, the anatomy and the physiology of the human body, with special emphasis on the cardio-respiratory, urinary, endocrine and nervous systems;
Applying knowledge and understanding
Students must use the tools and methods for the study of the morphological and functional organization of the human body
Making judgments
Ability to reason about a protocol and methods for the study of morphological and functional organization of the human body.
Communications skills
Ability to understand and be understood in technical situations
Learning skills
Ability to summarize a technical procedure and to write a scientific progress report



Course unit content

First lessons: to provide students with the knowledge of the cell and its components, the cell cycle, the stem cells and the processes of cell differentiation, the organization of the human body, the terminology and the body plans. Moreover, the concept of organ, apparatus and system.
The following lessons: fundaments of general physiology, tissue organization, description and composition of organs.
Latest lessons: Gross and microscopic anatomy, functional anatomy and physiology of the main systems and apparatus

Full programme

cell and its components (plasma
membrane, cytoplasm, Golgi's apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, mitocondria,
nucleus), the cell cycle, the stem cells, the processes involved in cell
differentiation, the formation and organisation of tissuses epithelial,
connective, glands, nervous and muscolar.
Locomotor apparatus. Structural Organization (cytological and molecular) of the Bone, Cartilage and Muscular tissue. Generality on the bones and on the joints. Trunk: spinal column, vertebrae, joints and muscles of the chest.
Circulatory apparatus: the heart (outdoor config, in-house config, structure of the heart, and of the cardiac valves), auriculoventricular valves. Arteries (lay-out of the arteries, arteries of the pulmonary circulation and the general circulation). General organization of the lymphatic circulatory apparatus. Functional and molecular anatomy of the blood-forming organs (bone marrow) and lymphoid organs (thyme, spleen and lymph nodes).
Digestive apparatus. General organization: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach. Stomach, slim intestine, duodeno, crass intestine. The Liver and the Bilious Tracts. The Pancreas and the pancreatic tracts. The Peritoneum.
Respiratory apparatus. General Organization: Larynx, Trachea, Bronchuses and Bellows. The mechanics of the respiration.
Urinary apparatus. The macroscopic and the microscopic anatomy of the kideny. Molecular and microscopic anatomy of the nephron.
Endosecretory apparatus. General organization. Hypothalamus nucleuses and the neurosecretion. hypophysis. Thyroid and parathyroids. Adrenal glands. The testicles and the ovaries.
Eye: macroscopic and microscopic anatomy. Functional anatomy of the vision: origin of the optic nerve.
Ear: macroscopic anatomy of the middle ear and the inside ear. Functional anatomy of the membrane labyrinth: origin of the vestibular and of acoustic nerve.
Part 1. Cellular physiology (ionic currents, membrane resting potential, action potentials, sinaptic transmission)
Part 2. Example of integrative physiology: muscular contraction (lab work with PC)
Part 3. Stress physiology: definitions, neuroendocrine systems recruited during stress response, coping strategies, stress related pathologies


MARTINI F.H.: Anatomia Umana, EdiSES, Napoli
R. Berne e M. Levy. Principi di Fisiologia. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana. 2002

Teaching methods

Oral lesson, lectures. Practical lessons and direct experience on anatomical models.
Oral lesson, lectures. It will also handle the assimilation of the scientific literature concerning the methods, experimental protocols, animal models and procedures for the characterization of:1) the morphology and composition of the cells; 2) structural and morphological analysis of tissues in various organs; 3) physiological responses of the main apparatus.

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of the achievement of the objectives set by the course includes an oral exam. Through questions regarding the contents of the course it will be ascertained whether the student has achieved the objective of knowledge and understanding of the contents.

Other information