Course unit partition: Cognomi M-Z

Academic year 2023/24
1° year of course - First semester
Academic discipline
Disegno (ICAR/17)
Ambito aggregato per crediti di sede
Type of training activity
80 hours
of face-to-face activities
8 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Course unit partition: ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING

Learning objectives

The course aims to provide students the main contents of descriptive geometry and its application, in order to make them able to translate the geometric three-dimension models of the architectureinto normatively correct representations. The course also aims to enable the students to understand the architecture through the reading of technical drawings and maps.
At the end of the course the student will be able to carry out a two-way connection between the reality and its graphical measurable model. This knowledge is essential for the understanding of space and its representation on two-dimensional support. The student will also possess the basic knowledge to master all the tools of drawing.
At the end of the course the application of the different methods of representation, made possible by the study of descriptive geometry and the practice of manual drafting, will permit the student to develop their own graphic language and its expressiveness in the specific field of architecture.
Independence of judgment
Due to the development of the skills of observation, visualization and expression of spatial forms through the mastery of drawing as a tool for reasoning and representation, at the end of the course the students will be able to identify for themselves the methods and the techniques of representation most appropriate for the communication of their work.
Communication skills
Since the representation is one of the leading forms of language for the communication of architecture, passing the exam, the students must necessarily have acquired the ability to communicate their ideas and projects through the drawing.


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Course unit content

As a discipline of architecture, the representation uses two privileged cognitive tools: the descriptive geometry, which forms the projective basis of scientific representation of the forms on the plane, and the drawing, which develops the ability to describe the spatial shapes through two-dimensional graphic images. The course is conducted through theoretical and practical lessons whose content is initially made by the themes of descriptive geometry and then, once acquired the main concepts aimed at understanding the different methods of representation, the typical themes of architectural drawing on different scales of representation.
The course is divided into two main parts and is modulated in cycles of theoretical and practical lessons with the following topics:
First part:
- Introduction to the concepts of projection and section;
- Orthogonal projection and contours plot;
- Axonometric projection;
- Perspective;
- Theory of shadows;
Second part:
- Architectural design;
- Territory design;
- Urban design;
- The drawing for the executive project.
The practical exercises relating to the first part will focus on the same topics of lectures and will be carried out through the execution of technical pencil drawings. Those relating to the second part include one or more outputs dedicated to life drawing.

Full programme

In summary the topics covered during the course will be organized as follows:
Training Module 1: Introduction to projections
Theoretical arguments:
- Key elements of the geometry of the plan;
- Operations of projection and section;
- Projection systems;
- Perspectivity and elements of homology: center, axis, corresponding pair of bodies.
- Types of homology: perspectivity, affinity, similarity and translation.
Training Module 2: The orthogonal projections and listed
Theoretical arguments:
- Representation of basic geometric entities (point, line, plane);
- Terms of belonging, parallelism and squareness;
- The main lines of the plan: horizontal, vertical, maximum slope;
- Rollovers;
- Vera size of plane figures;
- Problems of measurement: distance of a point from a plane, measuring angles;
- Intersection problems;
- Projections listed.
- Realization of technical drawings in pencil on the topics covered.
Training Module 3: Axonometric projections
Theoretical arguments:
- The theorem Pohlke;
- Axonometry orthogonal;
- Axonometry oblique;
- Representation of point, line and plane;
- Terms of belonging, parallelism;
- Intersection line / solid, straight / plan.
- Realization of technical drawings in pencil on the topics covered.
Training Module 4: The central projections
Theoretical arguments:
- Representation of basic geometric entities (point, line, plane);
- Terms of belonging, parallelism and squareness;
- Rollovers;
- Perspective central and accidental
- Perspective from above and below
- Realization of technical drawings in pencil on the topics covered.
Training Module 5: The theory of shadows
Theoretical arguments:
- A theoretical outline and terminology;
- Type of light source;
- Shadows in orthogonal projection;
- Shadows isometric;
- Shadows in perspective.
- Realization of technical drawings in pencil on the topics covered.
Training Module 6: The design of the architecture
Theoretical arguments:
- UNI formats. line types and thicknesses conventional;
- From project to the executive project: organization of the documents, correlation, headers;
- Scale of representation and purpose of the same
- Territorial;
- General plan, plans, sections and elevations;
- Building Details;
- The methods of dimensioning;
- Representation of roofs, roof covering, sometimes, stairs, windows and doors.
- Realization of technical drawings in pencil on the topics covered.
- The graphical analysis of the building architecture


M. Docci, M. Gaiani, D. Maestri, Scienza del disegno, Città studi edizioni, Novara novembre 2011
R. Migliari, Geometria descrittiva, volume I – metodi e costruzioni, Città studi edizioni, Novara maggio 2009.
M. Bocconcino, A. Osello, C. Vernizzi, Disegno e Geometria, collana Il Disegno e l'Ingegnere, Levrotto e Bella, Torino, 2006.
M. Bocconcino, A. Osello, C. Vernizzi, A. Zerbi, Il disegno del territorio, della città e dell'architettura: applicazioni per allievi ingegneri e architetti, collana Il Disegno e l'Ingegnere, Levrotto e Bella, Torino, 2010.
M. Docci, Manuale di Disegno Architettonico, Editori Laterza, Bari, 1999.
Michela Rossi, Il segno e la forma – grammatica grafica per l'architettura, Quaderni per la Didattica e la Ricerca della Facoltà di Architettura, DRR 01, Mattioli 1886, Fidenza, 2006.

Teaching methods

The course will be organized in a series of lectures held both through the realization of drawings at the blackboard, both through the projection of presentations previously arranged. To allow a continuous and progressive learning of the systems of representation, parallel to the conduct of theoretical lessons, numerous individual practical exercises will be assigned. These consist in the development of graphic drawings, always corrected, whose topics will follow those of theoretical lessons themselves.

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of learning will be carried out continuously during the course, through the evaluation and control of all the material produced by the student.
The verification will be so modulated:
Punctuality in the conduct of the individual practical exercises assigned: 5%;
Application of the methods of representation indrawings (knowledge): 50%;
Application of the techniques of representation in drawings (skills): 35%;
Autonomous choice of the modes of representation (independence of judgment): 10%.

Other information

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