AGRONOMY AND HERBACEOUS CROPS
cod. 1004799

Academic year 2024/25
2° year of course - First semester
Professor
Academic discipline
Agronomia e coltivazioni erbacee (AGR/02)
Field
Discipline del sistema agro-zootecnico
Type of training activity
Characterising
42 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in ITALIAN

Learning objectives

To provide the student with elementary knowledge relating to the process of plant production, with special reference to the processes of growth and development, maturation, harvest and storage of feed. Knowledge on the effects of agricultural practices on crop production (yield, quality, digestibility) and on feed preservation and contamination is also provided.

Prerequisites

Botany

Course unit content

INTRODUCTION TO PLANT PRODUCTION. Factors of production. Origins of agriculture and of cultivated crops. Yield and quality.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. Development and dry matter partitioning. Analysis and growth indexes (canopy).
SEED PROPAGATION. Seed characteristics and germination in field crops. Dormancy. Sowing and sowing machinery.
CLIMATIC VARIABLES: radiation, temperature, rainfall. Crop injury by high and low temperatures.
PLANTS AND WATER: crop needs. Soil available water. Field capacity and wilting point. Effects of drought and water flooding. Irrigation methods and their efficiency.
PLANT NUTRITION. Main nutrients; excess and deficiency. Antagonisms. Interactions. Macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur.
FERTILISATION. The main available mineral fertilisers. Organic fertilisers. Fertirrigation. Crop needs.
WEEDS AND HERBICIDES. Agronomic and chemical weed control. Effects of herbicides on plants and their behaviour in the soil.
SOIL: physical, chemical and biological properties. Management of water flooding. Drainage.
ROOT SYSTEMS. Development of root systems in field crops. Methods of root investigation. Indexes of root growth.
SOIL TILLAGE. Preparatory and complementary tillage operations. Plough and ploughing. Other tillage tools. Alternative techniques.
AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS: Monoculture, polyculture; intercropping; crop rotation. Organic farming. Cover crops.
PLANT AND SOIL WATER. Hydrologic cycle. Goals of soil water management. Irrigated crop production.
INTRODUCTION TO CROP PRODUCTION: cereals and legumes. Wheat and soybean as examples. Recognition of seeds of the main field crops.
WINTER CEREALS: wheat, flours and milling by-pruducts, barley and by-products from beer production.
SUMMER CEREALS: maize for grains and silage, rice and by-products.
PLANT FOR ROOTS: forage beet, sugar beet and by-products in sugar production (molasses, beet slices, dead wash).
PROTEIN CROPS: soybean.
MEALS AFTER OIL EXTRACTION: sunflower, oilseed rape.
FORAGES: meadows and pastures of Gramineous and Leguminous. Forage harvest.

Full programme

INTRODUCTION TO PLANT PRODUCTION. Factors of production. Origins of agriculture and of cultivated crops. Yield and quality.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. Development and dry matter partitioning. Analysis and growth indexes (canopy).
SEED PROPAGATION. Seed characteristics and germination in field crops. Dormancy. Sowing and sowing machinery.
CLIMATIC VARIABLES: radiation, temperature, rainfall. Crop injury by high and low temperatures.
PLANTS AND WATER: crop needs. Soil available water. Field capacity and wilting point. Effects of drought and water flooding. Irrigation methods and their efficiency.
PLANT NUTRITION. Main nutrients; excess and deficiency. Antagonisms. Interactions. Macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur.
FERTILISATION. The main available mineral fertilisers. Organic fertilisers. Fertirrigation. Crop needs.
WEEDS AND HERBICIDES. Agronomic and chemical weed control. Effects of herbicides on plants and their behaviour in the soil.
SOIL: physical, chemical and biological properties. Management of water flooding. Drainage.
ROOT SYSTEMS. Development of root systems in field crops. Methods of root investigation. Indexes of root growth.
SOIL TILLAGE. Preparatory and complementary tillage operations. Plough and ploughing. Other tillage tools. Alternative techniques.
AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS: Monoculture, polyculture; intercropping; crop rotation. Organic farming. Cover crops.
PLANT AND SOIL WATER. Hydrologic cycle. Goals of soil water management. Irrigated crop production.
INTRODUCTION TO CROP PRODUCTION: cereals and legumes. Wheat and soybean as examples. Recognition of seeds of the main field crops.
WINTER CEREALS: wheat, flours and milling by-pruducts, barley and by-products from beer production.
SUMMER CEREALS: maize for grains and silage, rice and by-products. A focus on micotoxins in maize.
PLANT FOR ROOTS: forage beet, sugar beet and by-products in sugar production (molasses, beet slices, dead wash).
PROTEIN CROPS: soybean.
MEALS AFTER OIL EXTRACTION: sunflower, oilseed rape.
FORAGES: meadows and pastures of Gramineous and Leguminous. Forage harvest and storage.

Bibliography

Fabbri A., 2001 - Produzioni Vegetali. Edagricole.
Giardini L., 2002 - Agronomia generale : ambientale e aziendale. 5. ed. – Patron, Bologna.
Giardini L., 2003. A come Agronomia. Patron, Bologna.
Bonciarelli F. 1995 - Fondamenti di Agronomia Generale. Edagricole.

Baldoni R., Giardini L., 2000 - Coltivazioni erbacee: Volumi 1, 2 e 3 - Patron Editore.
Bittante G., Andrighetto I., 1990 - Ramanzin M., Fondamenti di zootecnica – Liviana Editrice.
Ligabue M., Tabaglio V., Betti S., 2005 - Le piante foraggere. Ed. L’Informatore Agrario, Verona.
Bonciarelli F., 1995 - Coltivazioni erbacee da pieno campo. Edagricole, Bologna.

Teaching methods

Lectures and practical lessons.

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral-practical exam (separated) (recognition of seeds of the main field crops).

Other information

No