cod. 03367

Academic year 2023/24
2° year of course - Second semester
Academic discipline
Fisiologia veterinaria (VET/02)
Discipline della sanità animale
Type of training activity
51 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

To provide fundamental knowledge on animal physiology
At the end of the course the student should have acquired knowledge regarding general fisiology mainly in domestic animal. In detail, the student should be able to:.
Know the main principles of Fisiology of Domestic Animal y. The student should be able touse the specific language and use the scientific terms (knoledgement and understanding)
3. explain the results of the studies and toxic or antidote properties also to an audience of non-experts. (communication skills)
4. choose the right antidote on the basis of the acquired knowledge and clinical needs. (making judgements)
5. link the different topics treated in the course among themselves and to other disciplines of the academic degree course. (learning skills)


No as result from didattic regulation of the course

Course unit content

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:. Excitable tissues: nerve cells. The synapsis. resting potential and action. Synaptic and junctional transmission. Neurotransmitters. The sense organs and receptors: classification, coding of sensory information. The chemical senses: taste and smell. Physiology of hearing and vision. The somatic nervous system. Function of conduction, reflex and trophic of the spinal cord. Brainstem and cranial nerves. Cerebellum and its relationship with the segmental brain. Regulation of muscle tone, balance and voluntary movement. Thalamus and the cerebral hemispheres. The hypothalamus and the limbic system. Cerebral cortex. Autonomic nervous system: sympathetic and parasympathetic branches and their emergency. Similarities and differences between vegetative and somatic reflex arc. Neurochemical transmission.
THE MUSCOLARY SYSTEM: striated and smooth muscle cells, myocardium,
neuromuscular transmission. Role of Ca + +. Electrical stimulation and contractile response. Simple contraction and tetanus. Heat production in muscle. Fundamentals of biomechanics. The smooth muscle: mechanical, electrophysiological, nervous and humoral control.
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Conformation of the alimentary canal and digestion in different animal species. Endocrine and nervous regulation of the secretory activity of digestive glands of the alimentary canal. Gastrointestinal motility in monogastrics and polygastrics. Biochemistry and microbial flora, ruminal volatile fatty acid absorption and their metabolic fate. Absorption of end products of digestion, water and electrolytes in the small intestine.
ENDOCRINOLOGY: hormones and their function. TheNeuro-endocrine control.
REPRODUCTION: Reproduction physiology: puberty, oestrus, placenta and its functions, pregnancy, childbirth determinism.
PHYSIOLOGY OF LACTATION: Lactation physiology in raising breast, lactogenesis, milk ejection, metabolic and environmental aspects.
RENAL PHYSIOLOGY The kidney function and the mineral bilance of the organism
THE FISIOLOGY OF CARDIOCIRCULATORY SYSTEM: The cardiac muscle: cardiac innervation, conduction tissue, cardiac electrophysiology

Full programme

Wide program with the corresponding hours
Cellular physiology (hours of lesson 2) the concept of omeostasi. The structure and the functions of the cells. The transport of the substances through the cellular membranes. The cellular metabolism. The potential of membrane and the potential of action. The transmission sinaptica, the neurotrasmettitoris and the cellular receptors.
The Blood (hours of lesson 2). The principal characteristics of the blood, The plasmatic proteins, the red globules, Resistance of the organism to the infections, the immunity. Emostasi and coagulation of the blood. The blood groups.
The Central Nervous System and SNA (times of lesson 6).
Organization, protection and nutrition of the central nervous system. The function of parasympatic and ortosympatic system

The gastrointestinal system (hours of lesson 12).
The salivation, mastication deglutition of food. The control of motility stomach and of the gastric juice. The control of motility of small intestine. The control of pancreatic juice and its function. The biliar juice. The large intestine, defecation. The control of motility and activity of rumen, reticulum omasus in domestic ruminants

The hormones: (hours of lesson 6). GH, IGF,Insulin, Glucagon, somatostatin, melatonin, prolactin, tiroid hormones, oxitocyn, ADH, Aldosterone, cortusol,

The reproductive system (hours of lesson 10)., The hormones that controls oestrus cycle. Physiology of estrous cycle, estrus, insemiantion, pregnancy, parturition, The post partum.

The physiology of milk (hours of lesson 2).

The kidney and the control of omeaostasys (hours of lesson 2). The respiratory system (hours of lesson 2)., The cardiocircolatory system (hours of lesson 2).. The control of acid-basic balance (hours of lesson 2) The stress and its control (hours of lesson 2).


Materials from lesson, Articles from Journal ,Siaastad, K. Hove, O. Sand: Physiology of Domestic Animals, 2nd Edition, Scandinavian Veterinary Press,
• Gobetto, Pelagalli, Anatomia e Fisiologia degli Animali Domestici, UTET
• Guyton, A. Trattato di Fisiologia Medica,.C., PICCIN, Padova.
• Cunningham,J.G., Texbook of Veterinary Physiology, Saunders Company, USA.
• Duke's, Physiology of Domestic Animals, Melvin, J.S., Cordell University press.
• De Rensis Fisiologia degli Animali domestici
• Eckert R, Fisiologia animale, Zanichelli, Bologna.
• Moruzzi G. Fisiologia della vita di relazione, UTET, Torino.
• Gordon Fisiologia Animale Piccin
• Schmidt Nielsen Fisiologia Animale Piccin

Teaching methods

frontal lessons, practical lessons and observations on field

Assessment methods and criteria

Discussion during the lecture
Written and oral exam.
Written exams will be based on multiple question and discussion of one or two specific subject. The oral exams will concerns mainly on the ability of discuss of subject of the program and lik the different subject between tjhem
To the students with diagnosis of specific learning disability (DSA) certified under law n. 170/2010, proper specific support will be provided.

Other information

9 examination sessions are scheduled throughout the academic year, as reported on ESSE3 platform website. 5 more sessions are scheduled for so called "fuori corso e ripetenti" students. A minimun of 14 days is required between two subsequent examination sessions. The examining board consists of at least two teachers.