cod. 00768

Academic year 2024/25
3° year of course - First semester
Academic discipline
Patologia generale (MED/04)
Attività formative affini o integrative
Type of training activity
48 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

Once completed the course and acquired the corresponding CFUs, the student will be able:
- (DD1, knowledge and understanding): to understand causes and mechanisms of the pathologic processes
underlying common human diseases at the cell, tissue and organism levels
- (DD2, applying knowledge and understanding): to apply this knowledge to understand biotechnological approaches
aimed at diagnosis or therapy of human pathologies
- (DD4, communication skills): to analyze and describe a pathological process enlisted in the detailed program, exhibiting a critical approach, exploiting the bibliographic sources provided and paying adequate attention to biotechnological applications and perspectives.


Adequate bases of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Cell Biology are
The teacher will perform short diagnostic evaluations before each main
session of lectures so as to provide, if needed, recommendation for
proper reharsal of biochemical and genetic bases.
The acquisition of the CFUs on these subjects is strongly recommended for a fruitful attendance to the Course.

Course unit content

Lectures will concern three main subjects:
- Cell pathology: injury, adaptation, death
- Molecular and genetic pathology
- Neoplasia.

Full programme

1) Cell pathology
- Types and mechanisms of cell injury
- Main types of cell stresses and cell response to stress: oxidative, ER
stress, ischemic-hypoxic
- Intracellular and extracellular accumulations
- Cell death: accidental, regulated, programmed
- Modalities of cell death;: necrosis, apoptosis, other modalities
- Tissue adaptations: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia,
- Aging: from cells to organisms
2) Molecular and genetic disease
- Mutations and their phenotypic effects
- Repair of DNA damage
- Mendelian disorders with pertinent examples: autosomic dominant
(familial hypercholesterolemia, Marfan syndrome, neurofibromatosis);
autosomic recessive (aminoacidopathies and hyperphenylalaninemias;
cystic fibrosis); X-linked (hemophilia, muscle dystrophies)
- Non-mendelian disorders (mitochondrial diseases, genomic imprinting,
triplet expansion, multifactorial diseases)
- Chromosomal aberrations
3) Neoplasia:
- Nomenclature and classification
- Benign and malignant tumors
- Molecular oncology: the molecular control of the cell cycle and death,
protooncogenes and oncosuppressors, the genetic control of DNA repair
and apoptosis
- Causes of tumours: chemical, physical, biological
- The neoplastic phenotype: invasion, metastasis, progression,
angiogenesis, metabolic alterations


- Kumar, Abbas, Aster, Deyrup – Robbins Elementi di Patologia e Fisiopatologia - EDRA 2024
Specific bibliographic references will be provided during the lessons

Teaching methods

Lessons will be on site. Supporting didactic material will be available on the specific, student-reserved platform (Elly) and will include slide presentations and audio-video aids.
Slides are to be considered an essential, yet NOT exhaustive, didactic resource.
Lessons will concern the main conceptual frame of each subject,
summoning questions or doubts from the audience and indicating
bibliographic references for deepened study of the subject.

Students who cannot attend the lectures are warmly invited to check regularly the Elly Platform for didactic material and communications.

Assessment methods and criteria

No interim summative evaluation is scheduled.
However, interim diagnostic or formative evaluations will be possible.
The final evaluation will consist in an oral examination.

Students with SLD / BSE must first contact CAI - Centro Accoglienza e Inclusione (

Q u e s t i o n s / s t u d e n t : 2 (from two d i f f e r e n t e x a m i n e r s ,
o n e
q u e s t i o n / e x a m i n e r; one question will be on a subject chosen by
the student).
Questions will consist in the headings listed in the detailed program.
Minimal requirements:
Complete failure to answer one question, or the verified uncapability to
correctly the subject of the question, will prevent the successful
completion of the exam.
After each question, the examiner will give an evalaution expressed in
marks (30/30):
A. Very good knowledge and understanding. Very good capability of
applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 30/30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding. Good capability to apply
knowledge to biomedical problems. Corresponding to 27-29/30.
C. Average knowledge and understanding. Average capability of
applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 24-26/30.
D. Sufficient knowledge and understanding. Sufficient capability of
applying information to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 21-
2 3 / 3 0 .
E. Barely sufficient knowledge and understanding (with evident pitfalls).
Scarce capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems.
Corresponding to 18-20/30.
Full marks with laude will be reserved to students exhibiting, together an
overal evaluation of 30/30, capability of making judgments and good
communication ability and autonomous learning skills.
The final vote will be decided jointly by the examiners, who will have the
possibility to decide a vote not higher or lower than three grades from
the mean of the two individual

Other information

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