Provide a description of the general mechanisms underlying functions of the eukaryotic cell, particularly concerning membrane excitability, signal transduction, and integrate processes determining coordination and modulation of cell function. Classes will focus on specific mechanisms of cell physiology, which will be presented in the frame of their general significance within general phsysiology, e.g. autonomic modulation of cardiac activity, visual and auditory transduction. In all these cases, students will be requested to acquire knowledge spanning from the molecular, to the cellular and organ level. Aim of the course is also to provide knowledge on specific cell mechanisms that unveil synergies, feed-backs, and antagonisms, like in the up- and down-regulation of adenylate cyclase or in the interaction between sodium-potassium pump and sodium-calcium exchanger.