cod. 00072

Academic year 2019/20
1° year of course - Second semester
Francesca DEGOLA
Academic discipline
Botanica generale (BIO/01)
Discipline biologiche
Type of training activity
47 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Integrated course unit module: ANIMAL AND PLANT BIOLOGY

Learning objectives

The course of Botany is part Teaching or Integrated Course of Animal and Plant Biology.
The course aims to provide students with general and specific knowledge of the molecular constitution of the plant cell, as well as to its organization into tissues and organs and functioning of the same. This knowledge will provide the student with the ability to understand the function of the plant in terms of ecology and as food for heterotrophic organisms. The course will provide the student with the basic skills also to recognize and describe the different plant species of interest in agriculture and animal production and indicate the ways to use them for productive purposes.
Knowledge and understanding: Students will be able to acquire and develop the basic knowledge of plant biodiversity, considered as part of the global evolutionary process. Knowledge of cellular and tissue specific structures, acquisition and recognition of principal plant species through the use of specific systematic keys. Knowledge of the various organs and their functions.
Ability to Apply Knowledge and Understanding: Students will be able to acquire and develop basic botanical knowledge, in order to understand the structure-function relationship and its connection to both natural and agricultural environment. They also will acquire the ability to comprehend biodiversity, evaluating its concern related to climate change, invasion of alien species, and exploitation of resources.
Judging autonomy: students will acquire autonomy of judgment for the evaluation/ interpretation of experimental data, aimed at the setting of technological strategies for the exploitation and protection of plant species of interest.
Communicative Skills: students will improve their exposure clarity and language skills, using bibliographic tools to communicate specific knowledge.
Learning Skills: students will be able to expand acquired skills, through the access to bibliographic resources and other internet available tools, in order to understand and transmit it. Acquiring these skills will enable them to improve their knowledge and to independently reach upgraded levels of learning, to be exploited also in the preparation of the final test.


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Course unit content

The first part of the course concerns the study of histology and anatomy of the plant, passing from the cellular organization to the level of tissue, organ and then the whole plant.
The second part of the course is characterized by the discussion of the physiology of plant organisms, including the study of the processes of absorption, transport and assimilation of nutrients, as well as the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration, with considerations on the physiology of stress and the production of secondary metabolites .
The third part of the course is devoted to the study of the classification of plants as well as the description of some herbaceous plant species of interest in agriculture and animal production.

Full programme

- Plant Cell
- Root
- The stem
- The leaf
- Plant tissue
- Life cycle of Angiosperms: flower, fertilization, embryo, seed, fruit
Plant Physiology
- The water in the soil
- Water absorption by the roots
- Transport of water through the xylem
- Movement of water from the leaf to the atmosphere

- Essential nutrients for plants
- Soil, roots and microbes
- Absorption of mineral elements of the soil
- Processes of membrane transport
- Transport of ions in the roots

- THE PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Reactions to light
- Organization photosynthetic apparatus
- Organization of antenna systems for light absorption
- Stages of photosynthesis
- Mechanisms of the electron transport
- Transport of protons and ATP synthesis in the chloroplast
- Synthesis of glucose

- THE PHOTOSYNTHESIS: Reactions of carbon
- The Calvin cycle
- The cycle C3 for the oxidation of carbon
- The cycle C4 carbon
- Starch and sucrose
- Control of the photosynthetic apparatus
- TRANSLOCATION in the phloem
- Routes of translocation
- Models of translocation: from its sources and sinks
- Substances translocated in the phloem and speed of movement
- The model of the pressure flow for the transport of the phloem
- Loading of the phloem
- Download the phloem (phloem unloading) and transition from "pit-source"
- Distribution of photosynthesis: the allocation and distribution
- The transport of signaling molecules

- Glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, electron transport and mitochondrial ATP synthesis
- Lipid Metabolism

- Assimilation of nitrate and ammonium
- Assimilation of sulfur
- Assimilation of phosphate
- Assimilation of cations
- Assimilation of oxygen

- Cutina, suberin and waxes
- Secondary metabolites: terpenes, phenolic compounds, nitrogen-containing compounds
- Induced plant defenses against insects and herbivores against pathogens

- Structure and synthesis of plant cell walls
- Models of cell expansion
- Speed of cell elongation
- Degradation of the wall and plant defenses

- Physiology STRESS
- Water stress, thermal and saline
- Lack of oxygen

- Classification, nomenclature and Study of Variability
- Taxonomy
-the evolution of land plants
- Divisions of the plant kingdom
- Identification of vascular plants

- Classification of plants of agricultural interest

- Wheat
- Durum wheat
- Farro small, medium and big spelled spelled or spelled
- Barley
- Rye
- Oats
- Triticale
- Corn
- Sorghum
- Rice
- Millet and panic
- Buckwheat

- Soy
- Rape
- Sunflower
- Peanut
- Castor
- Safflower
- Sesame
- Sugar beet
- Tobacco
- Hemp
- Cotton
- Flax
- Kenaf


- Fodder legume

- Alfalfa
- Red Clover or violet
- White clover
- Berseem
- Persian clover
- Clover hybrid
- Crimson Clover
- Ginestrino
- Lupinella
- On the

- Forage grasses

- Grass mazzolina
- Tall fescue
- Timothy or Timothy
- Ryegrass
- Ryegrass
- Bromo cathartic
- Bromo helpless
- Fescue lawns
- Red fescue
- Festuca ovina
- Simultaneous between legumes and grasses
- Plants by erbaio
- Pastures


BOTANICA - parte generale.
Idelson&Gnocchi, 2006

Introduzione alla biologia vegetale.
McGraw-Hill, 2008

Rost, Barbour, Stocking, Murphy.
Biologia delle piante.
Trad. di Bertotti, Bevilacqua, rev. di A. Minelli
Zanichelli, 2008

Teaching methods

Lectures will be conducted through the aid of a POWER POINT support. It is planned to show presentations full of pictures, graphs and diagrams that enable maximum understanding and synthesis of the topics covered.

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of the success of the planned course includes a written examination By means of specific questions, it will be determined whether the student has acquired general and particulars knowledge of the course contents, he gained the ability to understand the function of plants and has the basic skills to recognize and describe the plant species studied.
The evaluation will be performed throug to the formulation of at least 10 questions, covering each part of the course; questions will be posed in open form, and histological and graphical figures could be provided.
Students with specific learning disability diagnosis (DSA), certified under law n° 17/2010, will be granted the facilities provided by law.

Other information

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