cod. 1004083

Academic year 2017/18
2° year of course - First semester
Academic discipline
Zootecnica speciale (AGR/19)
A scelta dello studente
Type of training activity
Student's choice
28 hours
of face-to-face activities
4 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in - - -

Learning objectives

D1 – Knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Know milk production system in Italy
2. Know the chemical, physico-chemical and processing characteristics of milk, as well as factor influencing its variability
3. Describe technologies used in milk processing.

D2 – applying knowledge and understanding
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Apply analytical methods to assess the quality of milk and dairy products;
2. Understand, microbial, enzymatic and physico-chemical mechanisms involved in milk processing.

D3 – Making judgements
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Evaluate the processing quality of milk and dairy products from analytical parameters;
2. Express on the correctness of processing parameters in milk transformation

D4 – Communication skills
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Express clearly and with appropriate terminology during description of concepts concerning the quality of milk and dairy products.
2. Read, translate and explain scientific papers written in Italian and English;

D5 – Learning skills
At the end of the course, the student will be able to:
1. Learn concepts relative to the processing of animal products;
2. Assess the impact of livestock farming on the quality of milk and dairy products;


basic knowledge of chemistry and microbiology

Course unit content

Production and employment of milk produced in Italy. Chemical characteristics, physico-chemical properties, and physiological role of milk. Chemical, biochemical and physico-chemical characteristics of milk proteins. Casein fractions and their structural organisation in milk. Milk coagulation. Lactodynamography: principles and rennet coagulation parameters. Factors affecting milk production and composition: somatic cells and genetic polymorphism. Milk production conditions: milking and cooling. Processing of milk for human consumption: thermal and physical treatments. Cheese: definition and classification. Microbial, chemical, biochemical, and physico-chemical phenomena during cheese-making: the case of hard cheese. Cheese defects: early blowing, late blowing, and slits/cracks. Methods to analyse chemical and physico-chemical characteristics of milk.

Full programme

- - -


The students can find the power point presentation projected in classroom on ELLY web portal. Ch. Alais (2000) Scienza del latte. Ed. Tecniche Nuove, Milano, Italy.
Fox PF (1993) Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology. Chapman and Hall, London.

Teaching methods

Classroom lessons, seminars

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of expected learning results described in D1 and parts of those described in D2, D3, D4 and D5, is carried out by oral examination, with ten questions: five for the assessment of the knowledge, the understanding, the capacity of making judgements and communication skills of the students; five for the assessment of the capacity of the student to apply knowledge to solve a practical problem in the dairy sector. To the students with diagnosis of specific learning disability (DSA) certified under law n. 170/2010, proper specific support will be provided.

Other information

- - -