Professional outlets

The single-cycle degree course in Law aims to train legal specialists with highly qualified skills in all areas of national and international law, as well as knowledge of other social disciplines necessary to fully understand the functioning of legal systems, on a theoretical and practical-application level.

Professional outlets

A Single-cycle degree course in Law allows access to PhDs, Postgraduate Schools, Professional Master Programmes, Postgraduate and Advanced Courses, and qualifying courses for aspiring teachers:
- PhD in Legal Sciences, which aims to train individuals for high-level research activities and lawyers specialised in traditional legal professions, both in the public and private sector.
- Specialization School for  Legal Professions which awards a Specialisation Diploma that is assessed for the purposes of completing one year of the practice period for access to the professions of lawyer and notary public and constitutes a qualification for access to the competition for the judiciary.
- Professional Master Programme (second level), aimed specifically at master's degree holders.
- Advanced Course in Labour Law, which is designed to provide participants with tools for knowledge and in-depth study of some of the main issues in labour law and social security.
- Initial and in-service training courses for teachers, of which the University of Parma offers different types, delivered in both traditional and e-learning modes.
In addition to the traditional legal professions, the second-cycle degree course Law provides access to those professions where specialised legal training is required, in the public and private sector, in the international and national spheres.





    Public sector (after competition or selection):


    • diplomatic career
    • career in European Institutions and Bodies (e.g. EU official, lawyer-linguist at the Court of Justice)
    • career in other international organisations, governmental and non-governmental (e.g. civil servants, administrative staff) 


    • career in public institutions and public administration, e.g:in national and local government bodies such as Parliament, municipalities, provinces, regions (e.g. parliamentary adviser, ministerial official, municipal secretary)
    • in the State Bar (e.g. prosecutor, district attorney)
    • in functional bodies such as Local Health Authorities, Universities, Chambers of Commerce (e.g. legal expert, administrative manager)
    • in the judicial administration (e.g. administrative director, court clerk)
    • in universities and schools of all levels (e.g. university lecturer, secondary school teacher)
    • a career as a member of arbitration and conciliation and business crisis resolution bodiescareer as a civil and commercial mediator and as a family mediator

      Private sector:

      • career in private companies, especially in legal departments and in the area of personnel and human resources management (e.g. corporate lawyer, expert in international contracts)
      • career in the banking sector (e.g. banking work technician, financial management, securities brokerage)
      • career in securities brokerage (e.g. stockbroker, stockbroker)
      • career in the insurance sector (e.g. insurance agent, loss adjuster, risk assessor, liquidator)
      • careers in areas requiring technical and procedural knowledge (e.g. employment service technicians, occupational safety technicians, advertising technicians)

      Free profession (some examples):

      • journalist
      • labour consultant
      • industrial and intellectual property consultant
      • sports attorneyreal
      • estate agent and appraisersales
      • representatives and agents, dealers

      Fact sheets on professional figures: LAWYER

      Who is the lawyer?
      The lawyer is the professional who looks after, represents and protects his client's interests at the various stages of civil, criminal and administrative proceedings; drafts contracts and other legal documents; provides legal advice in and out of court.
      How does one become a lawyer?
      In addition to obtaining a second-cycle degree course Law, access to the profession is subject to completion of a legal traineeship to be carried out in the office of a lawyer who has been a member of the Bar for at least five years.
      The legal practice lasts eighteen months, during which the trainee lawyer must attend a minimum number of hearings (which varies, as a rule, between twenty and twenty-five per semester, depending on the bar association to which he or she belongs) and have his or her attendance recorded in the practice booklet or in the hearing record.
      It is possible, however, to reduce the duration of the legal practice to six months by enrolling in a Specialization school for the Legal Professions (, which lasts two years; or by carrying out an internship in court, which lasts eighteen months (in this case, in addition to the internship in court offices, the trainee lawyer must have carried out or simultaneously carry out one semester of legal practice in a law firm).
      As with the notary career, trainee lawyers also have the option of carrying out their first semester of legal practice while attending their final year of university, in order to speed up the time.
      Once the practice has been completed, it will be necessary to take the State examination to qualify as a lawyer, which consists of three written tests and an oral test and is held annually (usually in December for the written tests; from July of the following year for the oral tests) before a commission composed of lawyers, magistrates and university professors.
      The written tests consist of the drafting of two legal opinions (one on matters governed by the Civil Code and one on matters governed by the Criminal Code) and a court document (on a question to be chosen from among the three proposed on private law, criminal law and administrative law respectively).
      The oral test always begins with a brief account of the written papers and consists of an interview on five compulsory subjects (legal regulation and deontology, civil law, criminal law, civil procedural law, criminal procedural law) and two optional ones (among constitutional law, administrative law, labour law, commercial law, European Union law, private international law, tax law, ecclesiastical law, judicial and penitentiary law).
      Is a second-cycle degree course Law sufficient?
      Yes and no, as the degree is necessary but must be supplemented with the procedure described above. Attendance at a Specialization school for the Legal Professions is recommended.

      Fact sheets on professional figures: LAWYER AND PROSECUTOR AT THE STATE BAR

      What is the Avvocatura di Stato?
      It is the legal body of the State that is assigned the task of providing legal advice and defence of State Administrations in all civil, criminal, administrative, arbitration, EU and international proceedings.
      In the State Bar system, there is still a difference between the initial figure of the State Prosecutor, who by practice is entrusted with the handling of disputes requiring less professional experience, and that of the State Advocate.
      How does one become a lawyer and state prosecutor?
      Appointments as State Prosecutor and State Advocate are made following open competitions. Specific requirements are required to participate in both the State Prosecutor and State Advocate competitions.
      Legal practice for the practice of the profession of lawyer may also be completed at the Avvocatura dello Stato. It should be pointed out that the practice carried out does not give any qualification for admission into the careers of the Avvocatura dello Stato, to which one gains access exclusively through public competition by examinations (for more detailed information please consult the institutional website of the Avvocatura di Stato ).
      Is a second-cycle degree course Law sufficient?
      Yes and no. It is sufficient to have obtained a second-cycle degree course Law to be able to practise law at the State Bar. One is admitted to practice at the Avvocatura dello Stato following a selection based solely on qualifications, based on the average of one's degree mark and the marks obtained in the subjects that are the subject of the written examinations for entry on the professional register and for the competition to become a State Prosecutor (private, civil and commercial law, civil procedure, substantive and procedural administrative law, criminal law and criminal procedure - for more detailed information see ).
      A second-cycle degree course Law (together with other requirements, such as being between 18 and 35 years old) is also sufficient to be able to take part in the competition for State Prosecutor. (for more detailed information see
      On the contrary, in order to apply for the competition for Avvocato dello Stato, a second-cycle degree course Law is not sufficient as one must belong to certain categories, such as State Prosecutors with at least two years of actual service, magistrates of the judicial order who have been appointed as court magistrates, lawyers registered with the bar with not less than six years' seniority, etc. (for more detailed information see

      Fact sheets on professional figures: Doctoral programmes

      What is a PhD?
      The PhD represents the highest level of education a student can obtain in Italy. The research activity is carried out in a specific scientific-disciplinary field under the guidance of a Professor/Tutor, who is responsible for providing the doctoral student with the tools to develop appropriate attitudes and skills in the field of research.
      How does one become a PhD?
      Admission to a PhD course, which lasts an average of three academic years, is through participation in an open competition. The winners receive a scholarship in most cases.
      The PhD degree is obtained by successfully completing the years of attendance and discussing a thesis written by the PhD student on a specific topic of investigation assigned to him/her. The doctoral candidate must demonstrate adequate study, research and updating skills in the chosen field. It must also enhance its investigation skills in an interdisciplinary and international context.
      Is a second-cycle degree course Law sufficient?
      Yes. The University of Parma, in agreement with the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, has set up a Doctorate course in Legal Sciences to which several disciplinary fields, such as private law, criminal law, constitutional law, and Roman law, are related. To date, the administrative seat is located at the University of Modena.
      More information can be found on the following institutional website:

      Fact sheets on professional figures: SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHER

      Who is the secondary school teacher?
      The secondary school teacher is a civil servant.
      Those who study law are likely to be able to become law professors in institutions that teach this discipline.
      How does one become a teacher?
      According to the Ministry of Education, in order to become a teacher in an Italian school, it is necessary to obtain both the qualification allowing access to teaching and the teaching qualification.
      Those who only have a teaching qualification can be included in the third band of the school rankings, exclusively for fixed-term substitute teaching assignments.
      A teaching qualification, on the other hand, allows inclusion in the second bracket of the school rankings, for fixed-term substitute teaching assignments.
      The qualification requirement also allows participation in competitions based on qualifications and examinations, from which merit lists are drawn annually for permanent tenure (source: official website of the Ministry of Education, where more detailed and constantly updated information can be found).
      Is a second-cycle degree course Law sufficient?
      No. The class for students enrolled in the Master of Laws degree course (LMG 01) is 'A-46 Legal-Economic Sciences', which requires at least 96 credits to be obtained in the scientific disciplines SECS-P, SECS-S, IUS, of which 12 SECS-P/01, 12 SECS-P/02, 12 SECS-P/07, 12 SECS-S/03, 12 IUS-01, 12 IUS-04, 12 IUS-09, 12 IUS-10.
      A large proportion of these credits are acquired automatically by taking the exams offered by the degree programme, but not all of them. Students are, however, granted the possibility of supplementing missing credits by including in their Programme of Study examinations offered by other degree courses of the University of Parma. The University of Parma has also activated the Training Pathway for the acquisition of 24 CFUs (PF24) in the anthroposophical-psycho-pedagogical disciplines and in teaching methodologies and technologies, necessary for access to the three-year Initial Training, Apprenticeship and Induction into the Teaching Function (FIT) paths for secondary school teachers. (More information can be found at:

      Fact sheets on professional figures: MAGISTRATE

      Who is the magistrate?
      A magistrate is a public official invested with the exercise of judicial functions by the Constitution. Specifically, some magistrates hold judiciary functions (GIP - judge for preliminary investigations, GUP - judge for preliminary hearing, justice of the peace, civil, criminal, administrative judge) and others require functions (PM or public prosecutor).
      How does one become a magistrate?
      To become a magistrate, it is necessary to win a public competition based on passing a written test and an oral test. The latter can only be supported if the former is successful.
      In particular, the written test consists of three theoretical papers on civil law, criminal law and administrative law.
      The oral test, on the other hand, covers civil law and fundamental elements of Roman law, civil procedure, criminal law, administrative, constitutional and tax law, commercial and bankruptcy law, labour law and social security law, EU law, public and private international law, elements of legal information technology and the judiciary, as well as an interview on a foreign language to be chosen from English, French, Spanish and German.
      Is a second-cycle degree course Law sufficient?
      No. A second-cycle degree course Law is not sufficient but necessary. After obtaining the degree, in fact, the candidate interested in becoming a magistrate will have to possess one of the qualifications required by the competition notice. Generally, a law graduate who wants to accrue one of the requirements in the shortest possible time will enrol in a Specialization school for the Legal Professions ( or undertake an 18-month internship at judicial offices, pursuant to Article 73 of Decree-Law No. 69 of 21 June 2013. For any further information concerning the competition in the judiciary, please refer to the Ministry of Justice website, which is constantly updated.
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      Fact sheets on professional figures: NOTARY

      Who is the notary?
      The notary public is a public official called upon to receive deeds between living persons and dispositions of last will by verifying their conformity with the law, to give them public faith, to preserve their deposit, and to issue copies, certificates and extracts. It mainly deals with real estate sales, corporate transactions and wills.
      How does one become a notary?
      Contrary to what many people think, becoming a notary does not require a licence to practice law. As in the case of lawyers, however, an eighteen-month period of post-graduate practice is required for access to a notary's career, with the possibility of bringing forward the first six months to the final year of university, thus reducing the time. Theoretically, therefore, the graduate may be able to carry out both practices at the same time, but in practice this option is not always compatible with the commitment required.
      In order to become a trainee notary, it is sufficient to apply to the local Notary Council and request that it indicate the notary offices available to take on new trainees; once the office has been identified, the notary in question will agree on the manner and timing of the practice, which will begin after registration in the register of trainees kept by the aforementioned Notary Council.
      After the eighteen months of practice, access to the notariat requires passing a national public competition announced by the Ministry of Justice, which is held in Rome approximately every two years. It consists of a written and an oral examination. The written examination consists of three theoretical-practical tests held on three consecutive days, each of which is devoted to a different subject; the candidate is required to draft, within a maximum time of eight hours, one last will (will), one civil law deed (contract) and one commercial law deed (company deed) respectively. Each act must be accompanied by a written justification of the legal choices made and a theoretical discussion of the institutions inherent in the case. The candidate who, after corrections, has obtained a minimum score of 105/150 is admitted to the oral examination, which covers three distinct groups of subjects: a) civil, commercial and voluntary jurisdiction law; b) provisions on the organisation of the Notariat and the notarial archives; c) provisions on indirect taxes.
      Is a second-cycle degree course Law sufficient?
      Yes and no, as the degree is necessary but must be supplemented with the procedure described above. However, the competition is particularly selective (statistically, one in five candidates is promoted); for this reason, it is advisable for the aspiring notary to turn to an in-depth study of notarial regulatory issues as soon as possible. The University of Parma foresees the possibility for students to modulate their syllabus by allowing them, as early as the third year of the course, to focus on subjects related to contractual issues and to opt for topics of their choice such as urban planning law or industrial law, which allow them to form a solid foundation in time in subjects that will undoubtedly be useful to the trainee once he or she is called upon to draft deeds, company deeds and wills for real.