HYGIENE
cod. 01995

Academic year 2023/24
3° year of course - Second semester
Professor
- Annamaria BUSCHINI
Academic discipline
Igiene generale e applicata (MED/42)
Field
A scelta dello studente
Type of training activity
Student's choice
48 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in ITALIAN

Learning objectives

KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
The main objective of the course is to provide the student with the tools necessary for an advanced understanding of the role of prevention in human health. The first part of the course is dedicated to the deepening of issues related to general hygiene. The second part is aimed at clarifying the relationships between prevention and pathology. For a better understanding, students will be directly involved through the analysis of case studies.
ABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
The didactic objective consists in obtaining the knowledge necessary for a critical analysis of the relationship between environment and human health from a hygienic point of view. The topics covered during the lectures are also addressed through the analysis of scientific articles and case studies. This activity, which provides for the active collaboration of the students, aims to increase not only their critical analysis skills but also their ability to apply the acquired notions both in the field of applied research and in the world of work.
AUTONOMY OF JUDGMENT
The course aims to increase the ability to critically analyze the most current knowledge concerning the complex relationship between environment and health
COMMUNICATION SKILLS
The articulation of the course includes classroom discussion activities aimed at developing students' aptitude for using the scientific skills acquired to support their arguments.
The critical analysis of scientific articles and case studies both during the lessons and during the oral exam, allows the student to develop communication skills both in a group context and at an individual level.
LEARNING ABILITY
The continuous evolutions of scientific research and in particular in the field of prevention of communicable and non-communicable require a continuous updating of skills. For this reason, the course aims to provide the autonomy necessary for the achievement of a wider knowledge and for the alignment of skills with the progress of research in the field of hygiene.

Prerequisites

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Course unit content

The Hygiene course aims to investigate issues relating to prevention, from a hygienic point of view. Topics concerning the complex issue of environmental safety are dealt with, with in-depth analyzes relating to the relationship between correct / incorrect lifestyles and pathology, also in relation to the most recent studies of genomics and epigenomics. Prevention interventions are also described, particularly aimed at spreading correct lifestyles.

Full programme

-General concepts of Hygiene and Epidemiology. State of health of a population. Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Health education. Elements of demography and health statistics.
-General epidemiology: epidemiological methodology; sources of epidemiological data. Main measures used in epidemiology (frequency, prevalence, incidence, crude and specific rates). Epidemiological studies: descriptive, analytical, experimental methodology.
-Epidemiology and prevention of infectious diseases. Epidemiology: etiological agents. Temporal and spatial distribution of infectious diseases (sporadic, endemic, epidemic, pandemic disease). Sources and reservoirs of infection. Bearers. Mode of transmission: direct contagion, vehicles, vectors. Infectious diseases transmitted by air, fecal-oral, parenteral and sexual, by vectors. General prophylaxis: notification, epidemiological investigation, direct and indirect diagnostic assessment, isolation. Prophylactic measures relating to: a) humans and the community (vaccine, serum, immunoglobulin and chemoantibiotic prophylaxis) b) vehicles of infection (sterilization and disinfection by physical and chemical means) c) vectors of infection (disinfestation by mechanical means, physicists, chemists).
-Epidemiology and prevention of non-infectious diseases. Epidemiology: etiology, risk factors, distribution and frequency of non-infectious diseases of social interest in Italy. Prevention: primary (strengthening of organic defenses, behavior modification, intervention on the environment), secondary (mass and selective screening), tertiary (rehabilitation and social reintegration). The main chronic non-infectious diseases: cardiovascular diseases, tumors.
- Environmental and food hygiene. Atmospheric air: chemical-physical characteristics, urban air pollution (sources, contaminants, effects), prevention. Water for human use: physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics; correction of water intended for human consumption. Urban waste water: study of the characteristics and methods of purification and disposal. Municipal solid waste: classification, characteristics, collection and disposal methods. Food: food-borne infections and food poisoning.

Bibliography

M.Pontello, F.Auxilia
“Igiene, Medicina Preventiva e Salute Globale” PICCIN Eds

Teaching methods

The course will be conducted through lectures on specific topics, with the help of power point presentations. Some scientific papers and case-study about the problems faced will also be analyzed and discussed. The course material will be made available, it is nevertheless strongly recommended the use of specific books for study.

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment will be done through a final oral exam. The exam will be carried out face to face or remotely in case of severe problems.
The oral examination will aim to test the knowledge and ability of understanding of the various topics covered during the lessons and to highlight the ability of the student to make connections between topics. With regard to scientific articles and case-studies analysed in the classroom, the students must also demonstrate their ability in analyse the scientific subject treated, their understanding of the experiments carried out, the results obtained and their interpretation. This examination will assess the students' ability to apply knowledge to specific problems, to connect the various acquired knowledge and to give a critical judgment and also their ability to communicate the knowledge learned.

Other information

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