The knowledge of the functional mechanisms of the human organs and apparatus addressed during the course, the knowledge of their dynamic integration and the general mechanisms of functional control in normal conditions
Basic and fundamental notions of Anatomy, cell and tissue biology and chemistry
Course unit content
The course addresses the physiology of the human body, by focusing on the general processes, the cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous and gastrointestinal systems, immune system, and the stomatognathic apparatus
The cell membrane: cell membrane structure, transport mechanisms. Electrical properties of membranes: electrochemical gradients, passive and active ion channels, resting membrane potential; action potential, genesis, and conduction. Synaptic mechanisms: electrical and chemical synapses; neurotransmitters; receptors.
SKELETAL MUSCLE and NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
Muscle physiology: striated skeletal muscle and smooth muscle; excitation-contraction coupling mechanism.
Organization of the spinal cord; spinal reflexes. Sensory systems: somatosensory system.
CARDIOVASCULAR and RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY
Physical principles of hemodynamics. Myocardial properties: rhythm, conduction, excitability, contraction. Heart mechanics and the cardiac cycle. Cardiac output. The vascular system. Blood pressure.
Chest and respiration muscles. Alveolar and pulmonary ventilation. Lung volumes and capacities. Mechanics of breathing. Blood-tissue gas exchange in the lung: relationships between ventilation and alveolar pressures of gases. Respiratory centers: Genesis of the rhythm of respiration.
Innate Immunity: skin and mucosae, phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammation, antimicrobial proteins, fever. Adaptive Immunity: humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.
BODY FLUIDS AND RENAL FUNCTION
Principles of body fluids and renal function. Regulation of osmolarity and volume of the body fluids. Acid-base balance and regulation of H+ excretion. Ion balance and regulation of ion excretion.
Principles of hormone action and endocrine control. Hormonal regulation of bone metabolism.
Functional anatomy and general principles of regulation in the gastrointestinal tract. Neural and hormonal control mechanisms of GI functions. Motility and secretions of GI. Digestion and absorption. Phases of the integrated response to a meal.
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE STOMATOGNATHIC APPARATUS
Salivary secretion; salivary fluid composition; Function of the salivary fluid, Metabolism of calcium and phosphate.
Sensorial aspects of the neurophysiology of the stomatognathic apparatus: mechanoreception, thermoreception, nociception. Motor aspects of the neurophysiology of the stomatognathic apparatus: masticatory muscles and the masticatory mechanics; trigeminal reflexes; control of mandibular and body posture.