cod. PC06030

Academic year 2022/23
1° year of course - Second semester
Academic discipline
Patologia generale (MED/04)
Scienze biomediche
Type of training activity
30 hours
of face-to-face activities
3 credits
course unit

Integrated course unit module: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY

Learning objectives

The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding the mechanism of proliferation and cell death, the mechanism of response to injury (inflammation, hemostasis, tissue repair), the pathogenesis of some human genetic diseases, the biological characteristics of the tumors, as well as the essential mechanisms of the immune response and its alterations, with particular reference to applications in transfusional medicine and to the aspects of interest in nursing.
The course allows the student to apply the knowledge and understanding gained in the professional future.


Sufficient knowledge of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology are needed to address the topics of the course.

Course unit content

General alteration of cell growth and cell death, cellular and molecular oncology, genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology. Blood and hematopoiesis and components of the innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology. Basic knowledge of Immunoemathology and transfusional medicine.

Full programme

Cellular Pathology: Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Oncology: classification and nomenclature of tumors; Benignant and malignant tumors; Tumor aetiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; invasivity and metastasis; pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and staging.
The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. Anemia and Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma. Phases and events of the haemostatic response. Hemorrhagic disorders; thrombosis and embolism; infarction.
Inflammation: events of acute inflammation; the exudate; types of exudate; phagocytosis; chronic inflammation and granulomas; abscesses and ulcers; chemical mediators of inflammation; systemic effects of inflammation and fever; tissue repair.
Genetic disorders: mutations; monogenic diseases: examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; cytogenetic disorders.
Multifactorial disorders: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus.
Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies. HIV infection.
Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Fundamentals of transfusional practice. Transfusional complications.


- J. Maier “Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia per le professioni sanitarie” II ed., McGraw-Hill
- V. Del Gobbo "Immunologia per le lauree sanitarie" IV ed., Piccin
- G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Patologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin
- G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Fisiopatologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin

Teaching methods

Lectures will be held on-site in compliance with safety standards, provided that further instructions on the ongoing health emergency are not implemented. Supporting material will be available on the specific, student-reserved platform (Elly) and will include slide presentations, audio-video aids or video-recording of the lectures.
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
The teacher is available for further explanations in office or by distance via Teams after e-mail appointment, or via chat on Elly platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.
In case the COVID-related sanitary emergence continues, the examination will proceed on the Teams platform (see the guidelines at the address:

Other information

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