cod. PC1005606

Academic year 2022/23
1° year of course - Second semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
integrated course unit
5 credits
course unit

Course unit structured in the following modules:

Learning objectives

The objectives of course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding the mechanism of proliferation and cell death, the mechanism of response to injury (inflammation, hemostasis, tissue repair), the pathogenesis of some human genetic diseases, the biological characteristics of the tumors, as well as the essential mechanisms of the immune response and its alterations, with particular reference to applications in transfusional medicine and to the aspects of interest in nursing; to enable the acquisition of basic knowledge of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses of medical interest and to understand their interactions with the host and their pathogen role, with particular reference to antimicrobial resistence mechanisms and to hospital-acquired diseases.
to enable the acquisition of basic knowledge of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses of medical interest and to understand their interactions with the host and their pathogen role. The course allows the student to apply the knowledge and understanding gained in the professional future.


Sufficient knowledge of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology are needed to address the topics of the course.

Course unit content

General alteration of growth and death, cellular and molecular oncology, genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology. Blood and hematopoiesis and components of innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology. Immunoemathology and transfusional medicine.
General characteristics of prokaryotic cell. Diagnosis of bacterial infection diseases. Main bacteria responsible for infectious diseases in humans.
General and special Virology. General characteristics of fungi. The main human fungal infections. Nursing microbiological issues: healthcare-related infections, pre-analytic sampling, antibiotics and antibiotic resistance.

Full programme

Cellular Pathology: Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Oncology: classification and nomenclature; Benignant and malignant tumors; Tumor aetiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; invasivity and metastasis; pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and staging.
The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. Anemia and Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma. Phases and event of the haemostatic response. Hemorrhagic disorders; thrombosis and embolism; infarction.
Inflammation: events of acute inflammation; the exudate; types of exudate; phagocytosis; chronic inflammation and granulomas; abscesses and ulcers; chemical mediators of inflammation; systemic effects of inflammation and fever; tissue repair.
Genetic disorders: mutations; monogenic diseases: examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; cytogenetic disorders.
Multifactorial disorders: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus.
Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors. The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary immunodeficencies. HIV infection.
Blood groups. AB0 system. Rh system. Other blood groups. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Fundamentals of transfusional practice. Transfusional complications.

- Structure of the bacterial cell (wall, outer membrane, plasma membrane, nucleus, DNA and plasmid, flagella, pili or fimbriae, capsule and spore);
- Metabolism of the bacterial cell;
- gene transfer mechasnisms: conjugation, trasformation, trasduction
- microorganism-guest relation and type of infections
- viral replication
- viral pathogenesis
- Viral hepatitis
- The SARS COV-2 virus
- Direct, indrect and rapid diagnosis
- Urinary tract infections: sampling, pre-analytic an principal pathogens
- Gastrointestinal infections: sampling, pre-analytic an principal pathogens
- upper and lower respiratory tract infections: sampling, pre-analytic an principal pathogens
- bloodstream infections: sampling, pre-analytic an principal pathogens
- central nervous system infections: sampling, pre-analytic an principal pathogens
- Antibiotic resistant bacteria
- healthcare related infections
- The Clostridum difficile disease
- The sentinel germs


Modulo di Patologia Generale
- J. Maier “Patologia Generale e Fisiopatologia per le professioni sanitarie” II ed. McGraw-Hill
- V. Del Gobbo "Immunologia per le lauree sanitarie" IV ed., Piccin
- G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Patologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin
- G.M. Pontieri “Elementi di Fisiopatologia Generale per i Corsi di Laurea in Professioni Sanitarie” III ed., Piccin

Modulo di Microbiologia
- M. La Placa - Principi di microbiologia clinica, XIII edizione – Ed. Esculapio

Teaching methods

Lectures will be held on-site in compliance with safety standards, provided that further instructions on the ongoing health emergency are not implemented. Supporting material will be available on the specific, student-reserved platform (Elly) and will include slide presentations, audio-video aids or video-recording of the lectures.
The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson.
The teacher is available for further explanations in office or by distance via Teams after e-mail appointment, or via chat on Elly platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.
In case the COVID-related sanitary emergence continues, the examination will proceed on the Teams platform (see the guidelines at the address:

Other information

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