cod. 15471

Academic year 2023/24
2° year of course - First semester
- Elisabetta DELFINI - Ilaria MIGNONE
Academic discipline
Scienze tecniche mediche applicate (MED/50)
Attività formative affini o integrative
Type of training activity
14 hours
of face-to-face activities
2 credits
hub: -
course unit

Learning objectives

To develop an elementary knowledge on the principles underlying the function of ophthalmic instruments



Course unit content

Prof.ssa Elisabetta Delfini:
Luminance and contrast in ophthalmic instruments: test to determine contrast sensitivity.
- Clinical electrophysiology of vision:
° ERG (flash, focal, multifocal)
- Measurement of the optical properties of the cornea:
° study of the topography
° optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the anterior segment of the eye
Prof. Ilaria Mignone

• Ultrasound in ophthalmology
• Laser in ophthalmology
• Measurement of the length of ocular structures: ultrasound methods and optical methods
• Measurement of eye pressure
• Retinal imaging
• Optic nerve imaging

Full programme

Prof.ssa Elisabetta Delfini:

-Contrast and luminance in ophthalmic instruments: Contrast, luminance, illuminance. Study of contrast sensitivity: several tests. Description and conduct of examinations and their clinical application. Examination of the recovery time after glare.

- Principles of electrophysiological examinations: The eye as an electric dipole. The electrooculogram (EOG). Examination management (preparation of the patient and methods of carrying out and evaluating the response). The Arden Index

-Electroretinogram (ERG): Structure of the retina, photoreceptors, scotopic erg and photopic erg. Preparation of the patient and positioning of the electrodes, execution of the examination and reading of the responses. Pathologies that are studied through the erg

-Structure of the retina, photoreceptors, scotopic erg and photopic erg. Preparing the patient and positioning the electrodes, carrying out the examination and reading the responses. Pathologies that are studied through the erg

-Erg flash, Erg focal, Erg multifocal.

Origin of the traces, physiological and pathological morphology. Electrode placement Conducting the examination.

-Examinations of the cornea. The Topography:
Measurements of the optical properties of the cornea. Reflection topograph and light slit topograph. Conduct of the exam. Various types of corneal maps (Axial, Tangential, Refractive, Altitudinal). Algorithms. Colorimetric scales. Corneal indices

--OCT of the anterior segment. Main corneal diseases. Corneal interventions and transplants. Endoltelial cell counter:
Principles on which the OCT time domain and OCT Fourier domain are based.
The Keratoconus. Fuchs' dystrophy. The CXL. The full thickness transplant, and the lamellar transplant: DALK and DSAEK. Endothelial cell counter.

Prof. Ilaria Mignone

• The use of ultrasound in ophthalmology
- Ultrasound techniques: A / scan and B / scan
- Ultrasound biomocroscopy
- The pachymetry

• Lasers in ophthalmological clinical practice
Argon laser, yag laser and excimer laser: mode of action and therapeutic applications

• Measurement of the length of the ocular structures: optical biometer and ultrasound biometer

• Measurement of eye pressure: breath and application tonometer

• Retinal imaging:
- OCT:
retinal anatomy;
quantitative analysis;
qualitative analysis;
main pathologies

- Fluorangiography and indocyanine green angiography: what and what it is used for

• Optic nerve imaging
- GDx


Yanoff-Duker. Ophthalmology. Mosby 2004

Elettrofisiologia pratica della visione
di Enzo M. Vingolo, Serena Salvatore, Stefano Lupo

Fondamenti di elettrofisiologia oculare
di Dario Messenio Edoardo Fiorentini edito da Felici, 2009Guida alla professione di ortottista. (2019). Città del Sole Edizioni s.a.s.

Brancato, R., Coscas, G., & Lumbroso, B. (1995). Atlante di angiografia al verde di indocianina. editore SIFI.

Lumbroso, B., & Rispoli, M. (2015). Pratical handbook of OCT (2nd Edition). Jaycee Brothers Medical Publishers.

Lumbroso, B., & Brancato, R. (2003). Guida pratica all’interpretazione dell’OCT. Editore I.N.C.

Riordan-Eva, C. E. P. T. (2020). Vaughan & Asbury’s General Ophthalmology, 18e. McGraw-Hill.

Teaching methods

Lessons are performed according to frontal teaching method, with
discussion between lecturer and students in case there are subjects to
clarify or to analyze deeper. Moreover, moments of active teaching are
also considered, in which all participants are involved in practical
activities both individually or divided into small groups, focused on
specific subjects, with final presentation of the results in joint session.

Assessment methods and criteria

In order to evaluate the level of learning achievement, based on the set objectives of the course, the gold standard is the oral exam on the topics covered during the lessons.
Regular attendance will be considered (while taking into account absences due to illness and other extenuating circumstances for students).
During the academic year theoretical-practical tests are carried out, in the context of internships carried out for students divided into small groups, accompanied by verification of the progress of learning of the knowledge and skills achieved.

Other information

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