cod. 1004823

Academic year 2023/24
2° year of course - First semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
integrated course unit
7 credits
course unit

Course unit structured in the following modules:

Learning objectives

To understand the principle of diseases affecting different levels of the visual system: different effects imply different diagnostic strateg.
To gain fundamental insight about binocular vision, stereopsis, and their impairment.
Pathophysiology of binocular vision.
To develop an elementary knowledge on the principles underlying the function of ophthalmic instruments.



Course unit content

Levels of visual function: from retinal images to perception

the optics of the eye and the retinal image
the retina
the optic nerve head
the visual pathway
visual areas in the cortex

Clinical electrophysiology of vision

retinal layers and biopotentials
ganzfeld flash ERG
focal and multifocal ERG
electrooculogram (EOG)
pattern ERG (PERG)
visual cortex and biopotentials
visual evoked cortical potentials (VECP, VEP, VER)

Binocular interaction: corresponding retinal points and areas
horopter, Panum's area
simultaneous perception and stereopsis
3D perception: monocular and binocular factors
development of binocular vision and related problems
diplopia and confusion
suppression, anomalous retinal correspondence (ARC)
neurophysiological basis of amblyopia

Visual angle and sizing of visual stimuli
luminance and contrast in ophthalmic instruments
Measurement of the optical properties of the cornea and of the eye
Ultrasounds in ophthalmology
Lasers in ophthalmolgy
Measurement of the axial length of ocular structures: ultrasonic and optical methods
Measurement of the intraocular pressure
Imaging of the retina
Imaging of the optic nerve head

Full programme

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Yanoff-Duker. Ophthalmology. Mosby 2004
Tasman, Jaeger, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology. LWW 2006.
Elettrofisiologia pratica della visione
di Enzo M. Vingolo, Serena Salvatore, Stefano Lupo
Fondamenti di elettrofisiologia oculare
di Dario Messenio Edoardo Fiorentini edito da Felici, 2009
Guida alla professione di ortottista. (2019). Città del Sole Edizioni s.a.s.
Brancato, R., Coscas, G., & Lumbroso, B. (1995). Atlante di angiografia al verde di indocianina. editore SIFI.
Lumbroso, B., & Rispoli, M. (2015). Pratical handbook of OCT (2nd Edition). Jaycee Brothers Medical Publishers.
Lumbroso, B., & Brancato, R. (2003). Guida pratica all’interpretazione dell’OCT. Editore I.N.C.
Riordan-Eva, C. E. P. T. (2020). Vaughan & Asbury’s General Ophthalmology, 18e. McGraw-Hill.

Teaching methods

The topics contained in the Programmes of the Modules will be illustrated
and discussed during classroom lectures in presence.
In specific cases, lectures will be integrated by active teaching through
individual and group exercises and practical activities.

Assessment methods and criteria

The achievement of the objectives will be
established during oral examination
in presence. Through questions on the topics covered in the course will assess the
knowledge and understanding of the content by the student.

Other information

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