cod. 00072

Academic year 2023/24
2° year of course - First semester
Academic discipline
Botanica generale (BIO/01)
Discipline biologiche
Type of training activity
72 hours
of face-to-face activities
9 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

The course sets the aim to transmit students the basic principles of biology necessaries to the comprehension of the basis of botany. The treated arguments will allow to the students the acquirement of tools necessaries to describe structures and functions of photosynthetic organisms from prokaryotes to protists and vascular plants. Students will obtain the basis to understand the main features of plant cells, tissues and organs and how they evolved and differentiate during time.

In particular students will be able to:

D1. Knowledge and Comprehension
To know and understand the structure, sub-structure and biological properties of plant cells, tissues and how they cooperate to form the different organs which, with their different functions, determines the plant anatomic structures. To know and understand morphogenesis, adaptations, classification and phylogeny of the main plant groups.

D2. Knowledge and comprehension application ability.
To be able to:
-utilize specific language proper of botany,
-recognize plant tissue,
-recognize structures and reproductive cycles of the different plant evolutive groups.

D3. Judge autonomy
To be able to evaluate teaching method

D5. Learning capacity
To be able to make connections between the different treated topics and between them and basis and affine disciplines. To acquire clearness in the exposition of the studied matters. To acquire a study method allowing the prosecution in the university formation. To reach the required competences for the insertion in professional activities at the end of the triennial course.


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Course unit content

Plant citology, histology and anatomy. Outline on plant diversity and phylogeny

Full programme

Autotrophy VASCULAR PLANTS: general features PLANT CELLS: Features of the principal organic molecules of the plant cell. General and distinctive characteristics of the plant cell. Cell wall: composition, structure, functions and secondary modifications. Plasma membrane, tonoplast and other endomembranes. Cytoskeleton. Cytoplasm. Vacuolus. Mytochondria. Plastids: etioplasts, amyloplasts, chloroplasts, chromoplasts. General and peculiar functions of Golgi apparatus in the plant cell. Plasmodesmata and desmotubuli. PLANT TISSUES: Meristems, primary and secondary adult tissues: Meristems, parenchimas, tegumental tissues, mechanical tissues, xylem, phloem, secretory tissues. PLANT ANATOMY: Anatomy of the plant organs: roots, stems and leaves Plant Evolution: appearance of the first autotrophic life forms, appearance of the first eukaryots, emersion from water and colonization of dry land with consequent modifications in vegetative and reproductive structures REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS: meiosis, alternation of generations, life cycles PROKARYOTES: Archea, Bacteria, Cyanobacteria, PROTISTA: Mixomycota, Dictiostelyomycota, Oomycota. Algae: general features, red algae, yellow-green algae, golden-brown algae, diatoms, brown algae, green algae. BRYOPHITA: hepaticophyta, anthocerophyta, bryophita VASCULAR PLANT EVOLUTION, MORPHOLOGY AND REPRODUCTION: ferns general features, gymnosperms, angyosperms (flower, pollination, seed, fruit, monocotyledons, dicotyledons) FUNGI: chytridiomycota, zygomycota, ascomycota, basidiomycota.


Pasqua et al. "Botanica generale e diversità vegetale" Ed.Piccin

Pupillo et al. "Biologia Vegetale" Ed. Zanichelli

Pancaldi et al.«FONDAMENTI di BOTANICA GENERALE teoria e pratica in laboratorio» Ed. McGraw Hill

Atlanti: Gerlach e Lieder "Atlante di anatomia vegetale" Franco Muzio Editore Speranza e Calzoni "Struttura delle piante in immagini" Ed. Zanichelli

Teaching methods

Lectures will be conducted through the aid of a POWER POINT support. It is planned to show presentations full of pictures, graphs and diagrams that enable maximum understanding and synthesis of the topics covered.
Lesons will be held in classroom , compatibly with sanitary emergency due to COVID, according to the University provisions

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of the success of the planned course includes an written examination (based on 20 multiple answer questions) which must reach sufficiency to give access to oral examination. The time disposal for written examination will be 15-20 minutes. The multiple answer questions will cover the entire course program and for any correct answer the students will gain 1.5 points; to obtain a pass mark at least 12 questions should be answered correctly.
Students who reach sufficiency in the test will be admitted to oral examination, which, depending on participant number etc., could be substituted by a written examination with three open qustions,
Answering to these questions students will have the possibility to organize their own argumentation making proper connections between of the different subjects treated during the course. In this way it will be determined whether the student has acquired general and particulars knowledge of the course contents, he gained the ability to understand the function of plants and has the basic skills to recognize and describe the plant species studied. Contribution to the mark obtained for the answer to the open questions will be calculated on the basis of correctness of the acquired knowledge, thinking and connecting ability, clearness of exposition and language property. Both part of the examination must pass the mark and the final mark will be an average of the marks obtained in the two parts of the examination.
Examination modality (in presence or online) might change according to the requirements due to sanitary emergency caused by COVID

Other information

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