Module of Phytoremediation AC 2022-2023
1-Broad definition of Phytoremediation according to the literature and to the US EPA guidelines
2-Origins of Phytoremediation in the US, legislative aspects and relevant scientific
literature. Example of useful websites. Comparison between the superfund in the US and the SIN in Italy
3-Polluted substrates, soil, water, and air. How the pollution can reach the substrates such as through the percolation of contaminated water.
4-Types of contaminants: old and new contaminants, from the classic pollution (organic compounds derived from petrol, PAH, PCB, VOCs POPs, inorganic compounds, heavy metals) to the new frontiers in pollution. Examples of Pharmaceuticals, e-Wastes (rare earths), engineered nanomaterials, micro- and nano-plastics. From where they come from, total annual production, how they spread in the environment.
5-The Phytotechnologies, differences and similarities between Phytotechnologies and Phytoremediation, how it came about.
6-Phytotechnologies planting types from planted stabilization mat to hold contaminant s into place to Interception Hedgerow that servers to take up the pollutants from to soil, to other techniques such as Air flow buffer, green walls, multi-mechanism buffer.
7-Phytoremediation of organic compounds: Sanders and the green liver model. Chemical, molecular and physiological basis of the three steps of the green liver model, how it works.
8-Experimental approaches to Phytoremediation: from lab to field. In vitro culture, hydroponic aseptic culture, Hydroponic culture with bacteria, mesocosms in controlled conditions, field applications.
9- Examples of Phytoremediation of petroleum derivates in the field. Example of remediation of TCE in different types of soil and climate conditions. How soil and climate properties influence the outcome of Phytoremediation.
10-Inorganics Phytoremediations: differences and similarities between pollution metals and plant mineral nutrients.
11-Types of inorganics phytoremediation/phytotecnologies: Phytoextraction, phytostabilization, bioremediation in the rhizosphere (rhizofiltration), phytovolatilisation
12- Phtoremediations of metals and semimetals: genetics and molecular mechanisms utilised by plants to deal with metals, nutrients and water transporter molecules that can allow the entry of toxic metals into plants.
13- The basis of the interaction of plants with toxic metals or excess of mineral micronutrients: oxidative stress. Basis and chemico-biologigical functioning of the oxidative stress, ROS and anti-ROS molecules and mechanisms within the plant cell.
14_ Special plants that helps to understand the interaction of plants with metals: Examples and types of Metals Hyperaccumulator plants. Biochemical mechanisms of hyperaccumulation.
15-Chemical and Microscopic techniques to study metals within plants. Chemical digestion protocols, basic functioning of AAS, ICP-OES or-MS, Scanning Electron Microscopy with EDX.
16- Example of a study of an hyperaccumulator plant from the chemical and microscopic point of view.
17-Visit to the laboratory for plant study inside the Cascina Ambolana, and to the small green house at the back of the Cascina Ambolana
18- Constructed wetland: basic parameters relevant for the functioning of a constructed wetland. Types of constructed wetland: vertical flow horizontal sub superficial flow. How does a wetland function, how it can decontaminate polluted water.
19-Case studies of constructed wetlands and examples of a constructed wetland in Italy.
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The Teacher will provide slides in English, Scientific papers dealing with the different topics proposed during the course suggests books appropriate for the study of part of the program.