cod. PR06030

Academic year 2023/24
1° year of course - Second semester
Academic discipline
Patologia generale (MED/04)
Scienze biomediche
Type of training activity
30 hours
of face-to-face activities
3 credits
course unit

Integrated course unit module: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY

Learning objectives

The course aims to allow the student to acquire
1. basic knowledge of cell and tissue injury and key response mechanisms (inflammation, hemostasis, repair), the pathogenesis of some human genetic diseases, the biological characteristics of the tumors, as well as the essential mechanisms of the immune response and its alterations, with particular reference to applications in transfusional medicine and to the aspects of interest in nursing.
2. the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to conditions of interest for their future professional activity;
3. a terminology adequate to the field of general pathology


Sufficient knowledge of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology are needed to address the topics of the course.

Course unit content

General alteration of growth and death, cellular and molecular oncology, genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology. Blood and hematopoiesis and components of innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology. Immunoemathology and transfusional medicine.

Full programme

Cellular Pathology: Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Oncology: classification and nomenclature; Benignant and malignant tumors; Tumor aetiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; invasivity and metastasis; pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and staging.
The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. Anemia and Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma. Phases and event of the haemostatic response. Hemorrhagic disorders; thrombosis and embolism; infarction.
Inflammation: events of acute inflammation; the exudate; types of exudate; phagocytosis; chronic inflammation and granulomas; abscesses and ulcers; chemical mediators of inflammation; systemic effects of inflammation and fever; tissue repair.
Genetic disorders: mutations; monogenic diseases: examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; cytogenetic disorders.
Multifactorial disorders: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus.
Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors.
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. Primary and secondary hypersensitivity and immunodeficiency reactions, hints. HIV infection. Autoimmunity. Elements of Immunohematology: Blood groups. The AB0 system. The Rh system. Other blood group systems. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Blood sampling for transfusion and blood components. Transfusion complications. The grafts.


- Parola M. “Patologia Generale ed elementi di fisiopatologia” EDISES
- Pontieri G.M. “Elementi di Patologia generale e fisiopatologia generale” PICCIN
- Lakhani S. “Le basi della patologia generale” CEA editrice

-V. Del Gobbo "Immunologia per le lauree sanitarie" Piccin

Didactic resources used during lessons (ie, PowerPoint slides) have to be considered an integral part of the reference bibliography; they will be available on the Elly site, on the course page.

Teaching methods

The topics in the program will be presented and discussed through lectures trying to involve the student so that it can be an active part of the lesson. Lessons will be carried out with the help of slides elaborated by the teacher.
Supporting material will be available on the specific, student-reserved platform (Elly) and will include slide presentations. The teacher is available for further explanations in the office or by distance via Teams after an e-mail appointment, or via chat on the Elly platform.

Assessment methods and criteria

Learning outcomes will be verified through an oral examination. Questions on the topics relating to the course will be used to test the knowledge and understanding of the student in the scientific discipline, and her/his ability to apply such knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts.
Students with Specific Learning Disorders must contact the University Reception and Inclusion Centre in advance (

Other information

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