cod. PR1005606

Academic year 2022/23
1° year of course - Second semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
integrated course unit
5 credits
hub: Parma Azienda USL
course unit

Course unit structured in the following modules:

Learning objectives

The objectives of the course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding about the basics of microbiology (general characters of etiologic agents of infectious diseases, host-pathogen interactions and
pathogenesis of infectious diseases, prophylaxis and therapy, drug resistance mechanisms, nosocomial infections), and provide the ability to apply the knowledge and understanding in occupational contexts in the
approach to the patient with infectious diseases.
Other important objectives of course are to enable the acquisition of knowledge and understanding the mechanism of proliferation and cell death, the mechanism of response to injury (inflammation, hemostasis, tissue repair), the pathogenesis of some human genetic diseases, the biological characteristics of the tumors, as well as the essential mechanisms of the immune response and its alterations, with particular reference to applications in transfusional medicine and to the aspects of interest in nursing.
The course will allow the student to apply the knowledge and understanding gained in the professional future.


Sufficient knowledge of biology, anatomy, biochemistry and physiology are needed to address the topics of the course.

Course unit content

Morphological and structural characteristics of microorganisms and viruses and their replication.
Cultivation of microorganisms and viruses.
Normal microbial population of humans.
Microbial pathogenicity.
Antimicrobial agents.
Important microorganisms and viruses causing diseases in humans.
Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases.

General alteration of growth and death, cellular and molecular oncology, genetic and metabolic diseases and general physiopathology. Blood and hematopoiesis and components of innate and acquired immune system. General features of acute and chronic inflammation and immunopathology. Immunoemathology and transfusional medicine.

Full programme

Introduction: microorganisms and viruses.
1.Virology. Morphological and structural characteristics of viruses. Viral replicative cycle. Virus cultivation. Common human viral diseases.
2. Bacteriology. The general characters of bacteria. Host-microbe interactions. Normal microbial population of humans. Microbial pathogenicity. Important pathogenic bacteria. Antimicrobial agents.
3. Parasitology. The general characters of protozoa. Common human protozoa infecting tissues and blood, intestinal and urogenital tracts. Helminths (notes).
4. Mycology. General characters of fungi. Classification of mycoses. Common human mycoses. Antifungal agents.
5. Laboratory diagnosis of infectious diseases. Pre-analytical phase: sample collection. Detection and identification of the etiologic agent. Antibody detection. Methods for antibacterial and antifungal susceptibility testing.

Cellular Pathology: Cellular alterations of growth and differentiation. Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Necrosis and apoptosis.
Oncology: classification and nomenclature; Benignant and malignant tumors; Tumor aetiology; Fundamentals in molecular oncology; invasivity and metastasis; pathogenesis of neoplastic diseases. Grading and staging.
The blood: composition, cells, general pathophysiology. Anemia and Thalassemia syndromes. Leukemia and lymphoma. Phases and event of the haemostatic response. Hemorrhagic disorders; thrombosis and
embolism; infarction.
Inflammation: events of acute inflammation; the exudate; types of exudate; phagocytosis; chronic inflammation and granulomas; abscesses and ulcers; chemical mediators of inflammation; systemic effects of inflammation and fever; tissue repair.
Genetic disorders: mutations; monogenic diseases: examples of autosomic dominant, autosomic recessive and X-linked disorders; cytogenetic disorders.
Multifactorial disorders: atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus.
Innate and adaptive immunity: distinction and cooperation. Antigens and Antibodies. Ag-Ab interaction. Lymphocyte receptors.
The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). Functional anatomy of the immune response. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions. Primary and secondary reaction. Principles of vaccination. Immune response to infections. Hypersensitivity. Primary and secondary hypersensitivity and immunodeficiency reactions, hints. HIV infection. Autoimmunity. Elements of Immunohematology: Blood groups. The AB0 system. The Rh system. Other blood group systems. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Blood sampling for transfusion and blood components. Transfusion complications. the grafts.


Visual aids made available online.
Harvey R.A., Champe P.C., Fisher B.D. Le basi della microbiologia Con approfondimenti clinici. Zanichelli

- Parola M. “Patologia Generale ed elementi di fisiopatologia” EDISES
- Pontieri G.M. “Patologia generale e fisiopatologia generale” III edizione PICCIN
- Lakhani S. “Le basi della patologia generale” CEA editrice

-V. Del Gobbo "Immunologia per le lauree sanitarie" III ed., Piccin

Didactic resources used during lessons (ie, PowerPoint slides) have to be considered an integral part of the reference bibliography; they will be available on the Elly site, on the course page.

Teaching methods

Lectures accompanied by visual aids will be used to convey critical information on the topics relating to the course content. Lessons will be carried out
with the help of slides elaborated by the teacher; lessons will be open to wide discussion with the participation of the students.
Lectures will be held on-site in compliance with safety standards, provided that further instructions on the ongoing health emergency are not implemented. Supporting material will be available on the specific, student-reserved platform (Elly) and will include slide presentations, audio-video aids, or video-recording of the lectures.
The teacher is available for clarifications on lessons by appointment (agreed by e-mail) in the office or at a distance via Teams, or through chat on the Elly portal of the course.

Assessment methods and criteria

Learning outcomes will be verified through a
multiple-choise written test for both the topics of the
course (microbiology and physiopathology) followed
by an oral examination (physiopathology). The
test will be considered positive only if the student
will be able to pass both tests in a satisfactory
manner, demonstrating in-depth knowledge and
appropriate understanding.
The final grade will take into account the evaluation
of all the teachers who make up the Board of

Other information

- - -