cod. 1009246

Academic year 2023/24
2° year of course - First semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
MORA Paolo
integrated course unit
8 credits
course unit

Course unit structured in the following modules:

Learning objectives

Learning of the basis knowledge of binocular vision and correct utilization of diagnostic tests.


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Course unit content

Anatomical and physiological basis of ocular motility and binocular vision. Extraocular muscles functions and methods for clinical evaluation.
 General concepts about ocular imbalance.
 Heterophoria: physiopathology. Esophoria and exophoria
 Intermittent strabismus and heterophoria
 Physiopathology of heterotropia. General concepts about esotropia, exotropia, vertical strabismus and alphabetic syndromes.
 Strabismic and/or anisometropic amblyopia: diagnosis, measurement, treatment (patching, penalization), and follow-up.
 Nystagmus: physiologic, congenital, acquired.
 Oculomotor palsy: congenital, acquired, secondary.
 The diplopia, the confusion, and the past-pointing. Study of extraocular muscles, and cranial nerves function.
 Examination of ocular motility: cover test, corneal reflexes, pseudo-strabismus.
 Incomitant deviation: measurement and diagnosis (cover test, Hess-Lancaster Test, Bielschowski test, examination of diplopia).
 The anomalous head position: congenital and acquired.
 Examination of binocular vision: suppression in the binocular visual field, retinal rivalry, normal ad anomalous retinal correspondence, stereopsis.
 Examination of fixation.

Full programme

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Burian, Hermann M.; Von Noorden, Gunter K.
Binocular vision and ocular motility : theory and management of strabismus / Hermann M. Burian, Gunter K. Von Noorden
Saint Louis [etc.] : Mosby, 1974

Diagnosi e terapia dello strabismo e delle anomalie oculomotorie. SEE Editrice Firenze, 1998

Teaching methods

The topics contained in the Programmes of the Modules will be illustrated and discussed during classroom lectures. In specific cases, lectures will be integrated by active teaching through individual and group exercises and practical activities.

Assessment methods and criteria

The achievement of the objectives will be established during oral examination. Through questions on the topics covered in the course will assess the knowledge and understanding of the content by the student.

Other information

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