Geomorphology and geomorphological maps
cod. 1009040

Academic year 2022/23
2° year of course - Annual
Professor
CHELLI Alessandro
Academic discipline
Geografia fisica e geomorfologia (GEO/04)
Field
Ambito geomorfologico-geologico applicativo
Type of training activity
Characterising
108 hours
of face-to-face activities
12 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in ITALIAN

Learning objectives

The course has among its specific objectives those of providing a solid basic geomorphological preparation and the knowledge and operational tools useful for entering the world of work (also with reference to the registration in the professional register of "Geologist junior ") and for access to master's degrees, especially that in Earth Sciences Applied to Environmental Sustainability.
These objectives are achieved through the acquisition of:
- basic knowledge of the dynamics of the earth's crust and of the litho-structural conditions of the substrate; climatic variations in time and space;
- basic knowledge to recognize the effects of one or more Earth relief modeling cycles and the relative connections with the morphologic processes of the past;
- ability to interpret and describe the landforms within the geomorphological evolution of the landscape even with the study of aerial photos; understand the functional and spatial relationships between the landforms in a given area;
- ability to read a geomorphological map and understand the evolution of the territory;
-capacity of analysis of morphological consequences induced on the environment by hydrogeological hazards according to their intensity.

Prerequisites

Exam Geografia Fisica, Cartografia e GIS

Course unit content

Basic concepts in geomorphology: landforms related to exogenous / endogenous processes; climate and weathering; paleosols importance; landforms activity and morpho-crhonology;photo-interpretation, reading of geomorphological maps and significance of the principal landforms treated during the course.

Full programme

Introduction: brief history of the geomorphology; basic concept in geomorphology.

Weathering and associated landforms. Short account on physical and bio-chemical weathering processes and related landforms. Notes inherent detritical cover and soil formation. Palaeosols and their significance in regional geomorphological evolution.
(Cremaschi M. “Paleosols e vetusols in the Central Po plain (Northern Italy)”, Ed. UNICOPLI, Milano, 306 pp., 1987). Bland W. & Rolls D. -”Weathering - a introduction to the scientific principles”, Arnold Ed., Londra, 1998).

Structural landforms and their evolution: sedimentary and igneous rocks morphoselection landforms and their morphologic evolution. Giura, sub-alpine and appalachian chains evolution styles. Planation surfaces and exumation processes. Morpho-neotectonic deformation and faulting processes and related landforms; relationship from hydrography and neotectonic movements. Photo-interpretation of several examples of 3D structural landforms.
(Bartolini C. - "I fattori geologici delle forme del terreno- ", Pitagora, Bologna, 1992; Selby M.J. – Earth’s Changing Surface, Clarendon, Oxford, 1985).

Slope processes and landforms (Wash and mass movements): Rain wash processes and landforms; mass movements: causes, types and evolution. Riverbed and valley slope modifications connected to landslide event. Some 3D examples of landslide types and big landslide in Apenninic area.
(Castiglioni G.B. - "Geomorfologia", UTET, Torino, 1991; Summerfield M.A.-”Global geomorphology”, Longman, Essex, 1991; Ciccacci S. - Le forme del rilievo - Atlante illustrato di Geomorfologia. Mondadori Education SpA, Milano, 2010; Selby M.J. – Earth’s Changing Surface, Clarendon, Oxford, 1985; Turner A.K. and Schuster R.L. (Eds.) – “LANDSLIDES: investigation and mitigation”, TRB special report 247, Nat.Acad.Press, Washington D.C., 1996).

Fluvial geomorphology: short account on hydrodynamics; erosion, transport and sedimentation processes; bed geomorphology and fluvial bed evolution; graded fluvial bed profile and causes of their modification. Fluvial terraces: origin, significance and evolution. Delta and estuarine genesis. Analysis and interpretation of fluvial landforms by means of photos 3D.
(Marchetti M.- “Geomorfologia fluviale”, Pitagora Ed., Bologna, 2000; Ciccacci S. - Le forme del rilievo - Atlante illustrato di Geomorfologia. Mondadori Education, SpA, Milano, 2010; Casati P. e Pace F. -"Scienze della Terra- L'atmosfera, l'acqua, i climi, i suoli", CittàStudi, Milano, 1991; Summerfield M.A. -”Global geomorphology”, Longman, Essex, 1991), Selby M.J. – Earth’s Changing Surface, Clarendon, Oxford, 1985).

Glacial and periglacial morphology (alpine environments).
Introduction to Plio-quaternary climatic changes and glaciations; basic background on ice formation; glaciers type and classification; erosional and depositional glacial landforms: italian subalpine glacial end moraines (morainic amphitheatres). Mountain permafrost processes and periglacial landforms; nivation processes and landforms. Analysis and interpretation of glacial landforms by means of photos 3D.
Glacial and periglacial morphology (high latitude environments). Inlandsis glacial landforms; varves and their significance; disintegration landforms; glacial isostasy. General conditions of the permafrost and principal peripolar landforms. Permafrost degradation: thermocarst, gelifluction, landsliding. Analysis and interpretation of periglacial landforms by means of photos 3D.
(Castiglioni G.B. - "Geomorfologia", UTET, Torino, 1991; Ciccacci S. - Le forme del rilievo - Atlante illustrato di Geomorfologia. Mondadori Education SpA, Milano, 2010. Casati P. e Pace F. -"Scienze della Terra- L'atmosfera, l'acqua, i climi, i suoli", CittàStudi, Milano, 1991; Smiraglia C. -"Guida ai ghiacciai e alla glaciologia - forme, fluttuazioni, ambienti", Zanichelli Ed., Bologna, 1992; Washburn A.L. –“Geocryology: a survey of periglacial Processes and Environments”, Arnold Ed., London, 1979), Selby M.J. – Earth’s Changing Surface, Clarendon, Oxford, 1985.

Coastal morphology: Basic background on marine currents, wind, tidewaves, energy ecc. Causes of the variations in sea level and coastal morphology. Longshore and offshore transport of sediments. Erosional and depositional coastal landforms and marine terraces. Morphologic coastal classification.
(Castiglioni G.B. - "Geomorfologia", UTET, Torino, 1991; Ciccacci S. - Le forme del rilievo - Atlante illustrato di Geomorfologia. Mondadori Education SpA, Milano, 2010; Casati P. e Pace F. -"Scienze della Terra- L'atmosfera, l'acqua, i climi, i suoli", CittàStudi, Milano, 1991; Pranzini E. “La forma delle coste”, Zanichelli, Bologna, 2004; Summerfield M.A.-”Global geomorphology”, Longman, Essex, 1991.), Selby M.J. – Earth’s Changing Surface, Clarendon, Oxford, 1985.

Karst geomorphology: Solubles rocks. Solution and precipitation processes. Short account on karst hydrology. Minor and major superficial karst landforms. Underground fetures and speleothemes. Climate and karst morphology. Analysis and interpretation of some karst landforms by means of photos 3D.
(Castiglioni G.B. -"Geomorfologia", UTET, Torino, 1991; Ciccacci S. - Le forme del rilievo - Atlante illustrato di Geomorfologia. Mondadori Education SpA, Milano, 2010, “Progetto Powerpoint 2009” della Società Speleologica Italiana -in rete).

Volcanic geomophology: Generality of the lava characters and volcan types. Basic and acid lava micro- and macroforms. Character of the piroclastic deposits. Erosional and depositional processes in the geomorphologic evolution of the volcan apparatus. Environmental modification connected to volcan activity (explosion, cinder cover, lava flow and lahars). Analysis and interpretation of volcanic landforms by means of photos 3D.
(Castiglioni G.B. - "Geomorfologia", UTET, Torino, 1991; Ciccacci S. - Le forme del rilievo - Atlante illustrato di Geomorfologia. Mondadori Education SpA, Milano, 2010; Ollier C. -"Vulcani - attività, geografia, morfologia", Zanichelli Ed., Bologna, 1990; Giacomelli L. - Scandone R. “Vulcani e Eruzioni, Pitagora Ed., Bologna, 2002), Selby M.J. – Earth’s Changing Surface, Clarendon, Oxford, 1985.

Eolian morphology: Climatic belts and wind processes and wind activity. Eolian deflation and depositional eolian landforms; dune types. Climatic significance of the loess. Analysis and interpretation of eolian landforms by means of photos 3D.
(Castiglioni G.B. - "Geomorfologia", UTET, Torino, 1991; Ciccacci S. - Le forme del rilievo - Atlante illustrato di Geomorfologia. Mondadori Education SpA, Milano, 2010;

Geomorphologic problems of the hydrographic network: Introduction. Network organization and structural bedrock conditions. Channel hierachy. Fluvial avulsion and stream piracy. Fluvial superim-position and antecedence. Epigenetic valley. Relationship between volcanic, non-volcanic landforms and hydrographc network. Neotectonics and hydrographic evolution. Lakes genesis and their evolution.
(Castiglioni G.B. - "Geomorfologia", UTET, Torino, 1991; Easterbrook D.J. -"Surface Processes and Landforms", McMillan Publ. Comp., New York, 1993, Marchetti M.- “Geomorfologia fluviale”, Pitagora Ed., Bologna, 2000; Panizza M. -"Geomorfologia", Pitagora Ed., Bologna, 1992; Summerfield M.A.-”Global geomorphology”, Longman, Essex, 1991), Selby M.J. – Earth’s Changing Surface, Clarendon, Oxford, 1985.

Landscape evolution. Slope genesis and landforms. Geographic cycle of Davis and landscape evolution; others landscape theories (Penk, King ecc.); Pediplanation processes and climate: formation of pediplains, pediments, ecthplains, ecc.
(Castiglioni G.B. - "Geomorfologia", UTET, Torino, 1991; Duff P.McL.D.- "Holmes' principles of physical geology", IV Ed., Chapman & Hall, Londra, 1993; Easterbrook D.J. -"Surface Processes and Landforms", McMillan Publ. Comp., New York, 1993; Summerfield M.A.-”Global geomorphology”, Longman, Essex, 1991), Selby M.J. – Earth’s Changing Surface, Clarendon, Oxford, 1985.

Study methods and widespread problems of the research in geomorphology: relationship between hydrography and structural geology; fluvial terraces study; glacial moraines morphochronology; Analysis and interpretation of related landforms by means of photos 3D.

N. 3 Field excursions: 1,5 cfu

Bibliography

Bartolini C. - "I fattori geologici delle forme del terreno", Pitagora, Bologna, 1992.
Bland W. & Rolls D. -”Weathering - a introduction to the scientific principles”, Arnold Ed., Londra, 1998.
Castiglioni G.B. - "Geomorfologia", UTET, Torino, 1991.
Ciccacci S. - Le forme del rilievo - Atlante illustrato di Geomorfologia. Mondadori Education, SpA, Milano, 2010.
Casati P. e Pace F. -"Scienze della Terra- L'atmosfera, l'acqua, i climi, i suoli", CittàStudi, Milano, 1991.
Duff P.McL.D.- "Holmes' principles of physical geology", IV Ed., Chapman & Hall, Londra, 1993.
Easterbrook D.J. -"Surface Processes and Landforms", McMillan Publ. Comp., New York, 1993.
Gerrard A.J. – “Rocks and Landforms”, Unwin Hyman, London, 1988, pp.319.
Giacomelli L.-Scandone R. “Vulcani e Eruzioni, Pitagora Ed., Bologna, 2002).
Marchetti M.- “Geomorfologia fluviale”, Pitagora Ed., Bologna, 2000.
Ollier C. -"Vulcani -attività, geografia, morfologia", Zanichelli Ed., Bologna, 1990.
Panizza M. -"Geomorfologia", Pitagora Ed.,Bologna, 1992.
Pranzini E. – “La forma delle coste”, Zanichelli Ed., Bologna, 2004.
Selby M.J. – Earth’s Changing Surface, Clarendon, Oxford, 1985.
Smiraglia C. -"Guida ai ghiacciai e alla glaciologia - forme, fluttuazioni, ambienti", Zanichelli Ed., Bologna, 1992.
Schmincke H.U. - “Volcanism”, Springer-Verlag Ed., Berlino, 2004.
Summerfield M.A.-”Global geomorphology”, Longman, Essex, 1991.
Turner A.K. and Schuster R.L. (Eds.) – “LANDSLIDES: investigation and mitigation”, TRB special report 247, Nat. Acad.Press, Washington D.C., 1996.
Washburn A.L. -"Geocryology: a survey of periglacial processes and environments". E. Arnold Ed., London, 1979.

Teaching methods

The course will be divided into basic lectures aimed at defining a general theoretical framework and in lectures, always frontal, of an applicative nature focused on the presentation and discussion of case studies. The course will be integrated with a certain number of hours of exercises on photo-interpretation techniques and on the use of aerial photographs for the recognition of the landforms of the territory. Moreover, part of the exercises will be dedicated to reading and understanding of geomorphological maps.
Lessons ex catedra: 8 cfu;
Lab. activity: interpretation of landforms by carthography;
some study case in basic landforms photo-interpretation: 2,5 cfu
N. 3 Excursions across the Parma - Reggio Northern Apennines and Po R. plain-preAlps: 1,5 cfu

Assessment methods and criteria

The acquisition of knowledge is verified through an integrated examination of the reading of a geomorphological map and the recognition of forms through the examination of aerial photographs.
The oral exam is based on 3 questions with a maximum score of 27/30 points, the reading of the geomorphological map can give a maximum score of 3/30 points and the recognition of aerial forms can choose a maximum score of 3/30 points. The praise is acquired with a score equal to 33 points.

Other information

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