The evolutionary approach to the study of behaviour is of crucial importance to understanding its adaptive value. Hence, the Course is aimed to provide the student with the essential knowledge and tools to analyse classical and more recent topics of the ecology of animal behaviour, by using also a methodological and an experimental approach. The Course deals also with the biological bases of social behaviour in animals (including humans), with particular regard to the selective pressure that determined the development and evolution of different social systems in different taxa. This part of the course will be focused on different aspects of living together, and on the conflicts and cooperation phenomena that occur among members of social groups. The student will acquire the basic concepts of behavioural ecology and sociobiology and will become confident with its methodology so to adequately approach and study eco-ethological problems.