cod. AZ1006872

Academic year 2021/22
3° year of course - First semester
Academic discipline
Anestesiologia (MED/41)
Primo soccorso
Type of training activity
20 hours
of face-to-face activities
2 credits
hub: Parma Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria
course unit

Integrated course unit module: CLINICAL EMERGENCIES

Learning objectives

The training objective of the course is to provide common knowledge elements and a unique language for the team dedicated to the management of emergencies to acquire a sharing of the problems. In practice, we want to offer tools to ensure adequate preparation of students for effective management of the emergency in the hospital (operating room, ward, ICU and emergency room), giving the opportunity to address the clinical problems of the emergency, through theoretical training and practice.

In particular, students will learn the tools for:
- Evaluate a case of cardiac arrest
- Frame the patient from a respiratory and metabolic point of view
- Diagnose an acute coronary syndrome
- Detect an arrhythmia, intervening on those dangerous for life
- Diagnose and start the management of acute and ketoacidosis, and manage complications
- Exclude or confirm the presence of life-threatening injuries in the traumatized patient
- Recognize signs of sepsis and septic shock, applying initial treatment and recognizing signs of worsening to transfer the patient to the most appropriate setting
- Answering the patient's questions on anesthesia, also briefly describing the goals, the sequence of events, the complications
- Know the risk factors for perioperative complications, proposing to the patient treatments to reduce the risk



Course unit content

The main issues related to emergency / emergency management in the hospital and on the territory will be addressed, assessing concrete clinical problems, through theoretical and practical training. The appropriate methodology will be provided to enable the urgency / emergency to be dealt with effectively. In addition, we will learn the main anesthetic techniques (general and regional anesthesia) and analgesia. They are showing peripheral blocks and related indications. Through practical exercises each student will understand the importance of pre-operative anesthetic assessment of individual patients, anesthetic drugs, the clinical monitoring of the operating period. Finally, the anesthesia will be explained for each surgeryIn particular, students will be shown: - The pathophysiology of cardiac arrest and its immediate treatment - Acute disorders of the acid-base balance and their significance in the context of severe alterations in homeostasis - The main elements of diagnostics and treatment of acute coronary syndromes - The main cardiac arrhythmias immediately life-threatening, and the clinical approach - The clinical history and treatment of the main metabolic emergencies (renal failure, ketoacidosis) - Know the organization of rescue and the principles of triage and management of medical resources - Know life-threatening injuries in the context of major trauma - Diagnosis and treatment of acute respiratory failure - Differential diagnosis of Shock. Definition of etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology and treatment - locoregional, the risk factors for perioperative complications, and the most common adverse effects

Full programme

• Cardio-circulatory arrest: etiology. pathophysiology, epidemiology and treatment
• Principles of mechanical ventilation
• Triage and management of medical resources
• Lung diseases:
• Blood gas analysis and metabolic urgencies.
• Acid-Base balance
• Cardiac arrhythmias: etiology. pathophysiology, epidemiology and treatment
• Acute myocardial infarction
• Hypertension
• Cerebrovascular accidents
• Acute renal failure
• Monitoring of the critical patient
Shock: etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, definition, differential diagnosis and treatment
• Fluid therapy and vasoactive drugs
• Physiopathology and therapeutic diagnostic path


• F. Della Corte. Manuale di Medicina d’urgenza
• Ferrari, Medicina d’emergenza urgenza, Elsevier
• ROSEN’S. Emergency Medicine
• Terapia Intensiva, principi fondamentali (P.Marino, MP Fink), Masson
• E.Romano, Anestesia- I principi e le tecniche, UTET
• JM Civetta, critical care: JB Lippincott, Philadelphia

Teaching methods

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Assessment methods and criteria

The evaluation will be integrated with a judgment of learning BLSD and an oral exam that will relate to the clinical cases of PS, operating room and ICU, which will be a starting point for a discussion on "Course Topics." For any topics not covered in class, the student will be referred to the contents of the recommended texts. The student's ability to deal with simulated clinical cases will also be assessed.

Other information

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