cod. 1007312

Academic year 2017/18
2° year of course - Second semester
Professor responsible for the course unit
PELA' Giovanna Maria
integrated course unit
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

Provide the indispensable tools for understanding the mechanisms through which physical exercise plays a key role in promoting health and how it is a powerful tool in prevention (primary and secondary) and care of major chronic degenerative diseases.
To tackle the Doping phenomenon in terms of protecting the health of the athlete.


Physiology and Biochemistry notions

Course unit content

At the end of the course the student must possess the basic principles of General Pharmacology (routes of administration, absorption, elimination and metabolism), general pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts, know the stimulants and inhibitors of the central nervous system, anti-inflammatory drugs, topical anesthetics, analgesics and the most important drugs of abuse. You must know the history of doping, the list of prohibited substances, national and international legislation, current legislation, sanctions, control procedures, quality criteria for accredited laboratories, Expected effects of drugs, Short-term and long-term adverse effects of drugs used, the analytical techniques used in anti-doping controls, the characteristics of biological samples and the variables that influence the reliability of the results. It must also be able to frame the doping phenomenon and related issues in the current socio-cultural context.
It must know the beneficial and adverse effects of exercise both in the healthy subject and in the major chronic degenerative pathologies (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia ...); The effects of tobacco smoke and methods of desensitization;
Respiratory function in the elderly, and the effects of physical activity in this population.
Characteristics of chest pain (pleura and lung disease: pleurisy and pneumothorax, pulmonary edema: high-altitude influenza and underwater environment.
It must possess adequate knowledge of the causes of sudden death and the main methods of investigation used in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy , Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome, long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome. Differential diagnosis pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy (Athlete's heart).
It must have knowledge about the practice of cardiorespiratory resuscitation.
Must know the main contraindications to sports activity.
It must possess the general concepts of nutrition, hydration and integration in sports activities and the effects of physical exercise in adverse environmental conditions.
You must know which activity (type, intensity, duration and frequency) is indicated in individual clinical situations (sports therapy) and should be able to administer it appropriately.

Full programme

PHARMACOLOGY General Pharmacology: General Concepts.
Pharmacodynamics: Receptor, Agonism and Antagonism of Autonomic Nervous System. Pharmacology: Neuromodulators Neurotransmitters;Agonists and Antagonists of the Cholinergic System. Agonists and Antagonists of the Adrenergic System.
Special pharmacology:
  Drugs for abuse, anti-inflammatory drugs. Medication of the central nervous system

PNEUMOLOGY: 1. Respiratory system components: pulmonary function, respiratory muscles, respiratory epithelium, alveolo-capillary diffusion
2. Respiratory function tests: spirometry and pulmonary volumes, emogas
3. Exercise physiology: respiratory rate, anaerobic threshold, heart and respiratory response to exercise
4. Physical activity: difference between physical activity and exercise capacity, physical activity questionnaires
5. Exercise capacity measures: walking test (6 minutes and shuttle) and cardio-pulmonary stress tests (incremental at ramp and constant load).

CARDIOLOGY:1. Cardiovascular physiology. Hemodynamic parameters. The heart murmurs
2. Heart diseases: ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular heart disease.
3. Diagnostic tests in Cardiology (ECG, etc.).
4. Cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, hypertension (tables 2013), dyslipidemia, diabetes ... Stratification of risk. European and Italian risk cards
5. Arterial hypertension Classification of risk
6. Primary Cardiovascular Prevention: Effects of Physical Exercise. Pharmacological interventions for the treatment of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes
7. Cardiovascular Adaptation to physical Exercise: Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy
8. Sudden death in the athlete
9. Arrhythmias: Brugada syndrome, ventricular pre-excitation, long QT

Doping history, WADA prohibited list, national and international rule, current legislation, sanctions, controls, side and expected effects of drugs. Doping related problem in the present social and cultural context.
Positive and negative effects of exercise on healthy people and on main chronic-degenerative diseases (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and dislipidemic diseases, tumors, aging). Sports nutrition and hydration supplements. Sport Therapy: what kind of physical activity prescribe (type, intensity, duration, frequency) in clinical context and how administer it.


David R. Mottram
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana


P. Zeppilli, V. Palmieri. Manuale di Medicina dello Sport e Pronto Soccorso.

Protocolli cardiologici per il giudizio di idoneità allo sport agonistico. Ed. CESI.

Teaching methods

Oral lessons, optional courses, seminars

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral assessment

Other information

During the academic year two optional courses will be offered:
1 Seminar "The Athlete's heart "
2 " Cardiological evaluation in athlete "