cod. 00703

Academic year 2019/20
3° year of course - Second semester
Academic discipline
Diagnostica per immagini e radioterapia (MED/36)
Scienze e tecniche di radiologia medica per immagini e radioterapia
Type of training activity
16 hours
of face-to-face activities
2 credits
hub: -
course unit

Integrated course unit module: DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING 4

Learning objectives

To know the methods of image acquisition and post-processing for conventional Nuclear Medicine and PET
To know methods of radiopharmaceuticals preparation, quality control and administrated activities.
To be oriented in a diagnostic Dept with high technological and organizational complexity with multidisciplinary activity.


Course unit content

Conventional Nuclear Medicine and Positron Emission Tomography (PET): physics and clinical applications, tomograph and detectors, sections of a Nuclear Medicine Department and PET Center, workflow and organization of activities.
Radiopharmacy Laboratory: workflow and organization of activities; equipment and facilities.
National and international regulations (NBP, GMP, cGRPP, Italian and Eur.Pharmacopoeia).
Manipulation, preparation and quality controls of radiopharmaceuticals: kit-based preparations (from licensed and unlicensed kits) and extemporaneously prepared radiopharmaceuticals, EPRs
Utilization of a Nuclear Medicine management software for full traceability from ordering stock to radiopharmaceutical preparation and injection.
Production of radioisotopes: cyclotrons and generators.
Basic operating principle of cyclotron working, uses, targets for radionuclide production, production workflow, cyclotron team, quality controls.
Generators 99Mo/99mTc, 68Ge/68Ga: availability, production workflow, team, quality controls.
Dose fractioning systems
Radioactive waste management.
Images acquisition methods (static, dynamic, whole body, 3D SPECT and PET, respiratory and cardiac gating, brain) and post-processing; normal and pathological pattern of radiopharmaceutical biodistribution.
Hybrid imaging: SPECT/CT, PET/CT, PET/MR.
Tools for quantitative assessment of imaging biomarkers (BasalGanglia, SPM5, SPM8, CortexID Suite, DatQuant, SUV metrix, TLG, MTV) and imaging software (Dicom RT, Cardioplanet, ecc).
PET/CT for radiotherapy planning: positioning technique, immobilization options, staff skills, laser light, 4D imaging.
Major clinical applications of SPECT and PET imaging: neurodegenerative diseases, oncology, endocrinology, pediatrics, bone and genitourinary diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, infections and inflammation.
Radionuclide therapy with radioisotopes: I-131, Ra-223, Y-90, Lu-177.

Full programme


Duccio Volterrani, Paola Erba, Giuliano Mariani. Fondamenti di medicina nucleare: Tecniche e applicazioni. Editore Springer
EANM Guidelines.
Elsinga P, Todde S and the radiopharmacy Commettee of the EANM. Guidance on current good radiopharmacy practice (cGRPP) or the small scale preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging (2010) 37:1049-1062
Mario Marengo. La fisica in medicina nucleare. Patron Editore.

Teaching methods

Theoretical lessons, videos, practical training, guided visits in the Dept.

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral exam/written test

Other information

Power Point versions of the lessons, guidelines, scientific papers, procedures and protocols as PDF documents