Learn the basics in preparation for the analysis of rocks and minerals of the techniques and applications of use in industrial and environmental
basics in mineralogy
Course unit content
You will learn the techniques of analysis of minerals in relation to the environment and other application areas; we will also illustrate the main issues concerning the world of cements, gems, ceramics, and medical mineralogy.
Part I: methods for the analysis of minerals.
X. The diffraction in crystals, Laue and Bragg equations. Powder diffraction: principles and use (the identification of minerals). The diffractometer: Debye geometry and Bragg-Brentano. The Rietveld method and the quantitative analysis of minerals. Single crystal diffraction: the reciprocal lattice and the reflection sphere. Diffraction intensity and structure factor.
Electron microscopy and microanalysis: limits of optical microscopy and principles of transmission electron microscopy. Electron microprobe and fluorescence. ZAF corrections and analytical problems.
Spectroscopic methods: IR and Raman spectroscopy.
Part II: Environmental Mineralogy.
Applications of the techniques of analysis of minerals in issues relating to cement, gems and environment. Applications on planetary geology.
Exercises, in particular on Rietveld analysis, will be performed.
Wenk and Bulakh (2004) Minerals, their constitution and origin. Cambridge university press.