cod. 1010695

Academic year 2023/24
1° year of course - First semester
Academic discipline
Campi elettromagnetici (ING-INF/02)
Ingegneria elettronica
Type of training activity
30 hours
of face-to-face activities
3 credits
hub: UNIBO
course unit

Integrated course unit module: WIRED AND WIRELESS INTERCONNECTIONS

Learning objectives

At the end of the course the student knows: the fundamentals of electromagnetic fields as the basics of radio propagation in free space with or without sources; the fundamentals of antennas and their main parameters (radiation pattern, directivity, gain, efficiency, and effective area); the formula of the radio link power budget (Friis’ formula); antennas combination in arrays.


Basic knowledge of vectorial algebra

Course unit content

Meaning of Maxwell’s equations and their energy interpretation (Poyinting’s theorem). Solution of Maxwell’s equation in absence and in presence of sources to determine plane waves and spherical waves in free space.
Sources seen as antennas, and definition of antennas characteristic parameters both in transmission and in reception. Formula of wireless link power balance (Friis’ formula). Array theory.

Full programme

Maxwell's equations in integral and differential form. Constitutive equations of the medium. Poyinting's theorem in time domain and its meaning. Sinusoidal regime and complex phasors. Poyinting's theorem in the frequency domain. Polarization of vectors.
Solution of Maxwell's equations in the absence of sources and determination of plane waves (TEM case only). Behavior of plane waves in the presence of discontinuities (Snell's laws).
Hints on solution of Maxwell's equations in the presence of sources: cases of infinitesimal and extended sources.
Properties of the antennas in transmission (directivity, gain, radiation efficiency) and in reception (effective area). Hints on the calculation of the power received by an antenna: determination of the Friis formula to be used for the power balance of a radio link.
Antenna array theory. Main families of arrays: broadside and end-fire.


"Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design", Constantine A. Balanis, John Wiley & Sons, 2012.
“Antennas and Radiowave Propagation”, Robert E: Collin, McGraw-Hill

Teaching methods

The course includes lectures taught by the professor, and laboratory activities on the use of a commercial electromagnetic software tool. The lectures material (slides) is provided before the corresponding class takes place.
Periodically during the course some lessons are carried out interactively (or in flip-mode), presenting questions to which students must answer in relation to the program seen up to that time.

Assessment methods and criteria

The exam consists of an oral interview (of around 30 minutes) on the main topics of the course. During the exam, the student can have a map with the main formulas of the course.

Other information

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