cod. 1011320

Academic year 2023/24
1° year of course - Second semester
Bianca Maria ROTOLI
Academic discipline
Patologia generale (MED/04)
Scienze biomediche
Type of training activity
16 hours
of face-to-face activities
2 credits
hub: -
course unit

Integrated course unit module: HEALTH AND DISEASE

Learning objectives

The course offers general information on the causes and mechanisms of disease. At the end of the course the student must have acquired knowledge on the concepts of Mendelian and multifactorial inheritance, on the mechanisms by which pathogenic noxae, including those of an environmental nature, determine the disease, on the main pathological conditions, with particular reference to neurological or mental diseases.
The student will also be able to evaluate environmental contamination/exposure situations in a broad sense, to estimate the risks and to adopt measures to reduce them. Finally, you will be able to transmit adequate and correct information aimed at protecting human health also to the general population.


General notions about anatomy, histology, biochemistry

Course unit content

At the end of the course the student will be able to:
1. Acquire knowledge of the scientific terms and language used in the field of human pathologies.
2. Know the main chemical, physical and biological pathogenic factors and their effects (biological damage and cell death) on cells and tissues.
3. Know the reactions of a tissue or organ to damage.
4. Know the general characteristics of mental disorders from a cellular point of view

Full programme

Introduction to General Pathology.
Concept of etiology and pathogenesis. Homeostasis concept. Difference between health and disease.

Intrinsic causes of disease: mutations, concepts of Mendelian inheritance of genetic diseases. Multifactorial inheritance
Extrinsic causes of disease: chemical, physical, biological causes.
Toxicity from particular habits or food

Cellular damage and response to damage
Causes of cell damage and mechanisms. Reversible and irreversible damage. Necrosis and apoptosis. Cellular responses to stress and harmful insults. Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy. Examples of damage: ischemia damage, ethanol toxicity, free radical toxicity. Intracellular and extracellular protein accumulations.

The tissue response to damage
Acute and chronic inflammation. Definition, phases and cells. Regeneration and repair concepts.

Degenerative diseases of the nervous system
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Mental disorders
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
Schizophrenia: general characteristics of the possible causes and brain alterations.


SR. Lakhani, SA. Dilly, CJ. Finlayson
Le basi della patologia generale
Casa editrice ambrosiana

Rubin E., Reisner HM Patologia Generale -L'essenziale
Casa editrice Piccin-Vol. 1

GM. Pontieri:
Elementi di Patologia generale IV Ed. 2018
Casa editrice Piccin

M Parola
Patologia generale
Casa editrice Edises

Teaching methods

16 hours of lectures with the support of presentations in .ppt

Assessment methods and criteria

Tests in progress will not be carried out.
The final assessment will be carried out through an oral examination.
The vote will be expressed from 18 to 30/30.

Other information

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