GENERAL AND INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
cod. 00130

Academic year 2023/24
1° year of course - First semester
Professor
- Alessia BACCHI
Academic discipline
Chimica generale e inorganica (CHIM/03)
Field
Discipline chimiche
Type of training activity
Basic
72 hours
of face-to-face activities
9 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in ITALIAN

Learning objectives

The aim of the course is to give the fundamental chemical concepts required to face the study of Chemistry. Particular emphasis is given to three aspects of the modern chemistry, the structural, energetic and kinetic ones, involved in all chemical problems. The theoretical treatment of the fundamental concepts is followed by examples. Care is given to teach formal correctness of language, and to highlight connections among different parts of the program.

Specific targets: students will acquire:
D1: basic knowledge of the nomenclature and chemical terminology. Basic knowledge of the properties of elements and compounds and of the Periodic Table. Basic knowledge of the structure and stereochemistry of elements and compounds. Basic knowledge of the description of the states of the matter. Basic knowledge of thermodymnamics, electrochemistry, gas theory, kinetics and applications. Basic knowledge of chemical transformations, catalysis, and mechanistic interpretation of chemical phenomena.

D2: students will master: execution of stoichiometric calculations, energetic calculations, equilibrium constants, reaction orders, and formal interpretation basic chemical and physical knowledge.

D3: students will develop correlation between experimental observation and theorical knowledge

D4: students will communicate scientific data and concepts with appropriate terminology within a collaborative environment

D5: students will understand the concepts that will be developed in the higher levels of the educational career

Prerequisites

None

Course unit content

The foundations of the atomic and molecular theory

Aggregation states of the matter. Names and symbols of the elements. Chemical equations. Atomic and molecular weights. Scale of the atomic weights. Mole and avogadro's number. Absolute atomic and molecular weights.

2 Structure of the atoms.
Principles of the quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom. Polyelectron atoms. Electronic configuration of the atoms. Periodic properties of the elements.

3 Chemical bond

Ionic bond. Properties of the ionic compounds. Covalent bond. The lewis octet rule. Vsepr theory. Theory of the valence bond (vb) and theory of the molecular orbitals (mo). Hybrid orbitals. Description by the vb method of the bonds in simple molecoles and polyatomic ions, both inorganic and organic. Metallic bond. Van der Waals bonds. Hydrogen bond.


4 Nomenclature of the compounds

Chemical reactions. Oxidation numbers. Classification and nomenclature of the inorganic compounds. Chemical reactions: salification, exchange and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.


5 States of aggregation of the matter


Gaseous state: properties of the gases, ideal and nonideal gases. Liquefation of the gases. Liquid state. Solid state: properties of the solids. Crystal lattices and unit cells. Types of crystalline solids: metallic, ionic, covalent and molecolar. Defects in the crystals. Allotropy, polymorfism and isomorfism.

6 Solutions


General properties of the solutions. Different ways to indicate the concentrations of the solutes. Raoult's law. Colligative properties. Osmotic pression. Dissociaton ans association of the solutes.

7 Chemical thermodinamics


Definition of system, heat and work. Internal energy and enthalpy. Laws of the thermochemistry. Thelaws of thermodinamics. Entropy.Gibbs free energy. Equilibrium.

8 Chemical equilibrium


Equilibrium inhomogeneous systems. Equilibrium constant and its dependance on the temperature. Heterogeneous equilibria. Rule of the phases. Systems of one component. Binary systems formed by liquidis miscible in every ratio or quite immiscible. Solid-liqquid binary systems.


9 Ionic equilibria


Solubility-product. The nature of the acids and of the bases. Ionization of the water .pH and its determination. Dissociation of the acids and of the bases either strong and weak in diluted aqueous solutions. Hydrolitic equilibria.pH indicators. Acid-basis titration curves. Buffer solutions. Amphoteric substances.

10 Chemical kinetics

Reaction rates and features influencing them. Reaction order. Influence of the temperature on the reaction rate. Catalysis. Reaction mechanisms.

11 Electrolytic and galvanic cells

Electrolytic cells. Galvanic cells. Standard reduction potentials. Reference electrodes. Calculation of the f.e.m. of a cell.

12 Inorganic chemistry

General properties of the groups. General properties of the most important elements of the main and transition groups and of their most important compounds. Processes of industrial relevance.

Full programme

The foundations of the atomic and molecular theory

Aggregation states of the matter. Names and symbols of the elements. Chemical equations. Atomic and molecular weights. Scale of the atomic weights. Mole and avogadro's number. Absolute atomic and molecular weights.

2 Structure of the atoms.
Principles of the quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom. Polyelectron atoms. Electronic configuration of the atoms. Periodic properties of the elements.

3 Chemical bond

Ionic bond. Properties of the ionic compounds. Covalent bond. The lewis octet rule. Vsepr theory. Theory of the valence bond (vb) and theory of the molecular orbitals (mo). Hybrid orbitals. Description by the vb method of the bonds in simple molecoles and polyatomic ions, both inorganic and organic. Metallic bond. Van der Waals bonds. Hydrogen bond.


4 Nomenclature of the compounds

Chemical reactions. Oxidation numbers. Classification and nomenclature of the inorganic compounds. Chemical reactions: salification, exchange and oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions.


5 States of aggregation of the matter


Gaseous state: properties of the gases, ideal and nonideal gases. Liquefation of the gases. Liquid state. Solid state: properties of the solids. Crystal lattices and unit cells. Types of crystalline solids: metallic, ionic, covalent and molecolar. Defects in the crystals. Allotropy, polymorfism and isomorfism.

6 Solutions


General properties of the solutions. Different ways to indicate the concentrations of the solutes. Raoult's law. Colligative properties. Osmotic pression. Dissociaton ans association of the solutes.

7 Chemical thermodinamics


Definition of system, heat and work. Internal energy and enthalpy. Laws of the thermochemistry. Thelaws of thermodinamics. Entropy.Gibbs free energy. Equilibrium.

8 Chemical equilibrium


Equilibrium inhomogeneous systems. Equilibrium constant and its dependance on the temperature. Heterogeneous equilibria. Rule of the phases. Systems of one component. Binary systems formed by liquidis miscible in every ratio or quite immiscible. Solid-liqquid binary systems.


9 Ionic equilibria


Solubility-product. The nature of the acids and of the bases. Ionization of the water .pH and its determination. Dissociation of the acids and of the bases either strong and weak in diluted aqueous solutions. Hydrolitic equilibria.pH indicators. Acid-basis titration curves. Buffer solutions. Amphoteric substances.

10 Chemical kinetics

Reaction rates and features influencing them. Reaction order. Influence of the temperature on the reaction rate. Catalysis. Reaction mechanisms.

11 Electrolytic and galvanic cells

Electrolytic cells. Galvanic cells. Standard reduction potentials. Reference electrodes. Calculation of the f.e.m. of a cell.

12 Inorganic chemistry

General properties of the groups. General properties of the most important elements of the main and transition groups and of their most important compounds. Processes of industrial relevance.

Bibliography

One of the following:

P. ATKINS e L. JONES, Principi di Chimica, Casa Editrice Zanichelli

FUSI, BACCHI, GIORGI, MARCHETTI, MESSORI, PAOLI, PUNZO, SORTINO, TOLAZZI - Chimica generale e Inorganica, Casa Editrice Idelson-Gnocchi, 2011

A.M. MANOTTI LANFREDI e A. TIRIPICCHIO, Fondamenti di Chimica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

P. Zanello-R.Gobetto-R.Zanoni, Conoscere la chimica, CEA, 2009

ATKINS, JONES - Chimica Generale - Zanichelli

R.H. PETRUCCI e W.S. HARWOOD, Chimica Generale, Casa Editrice Piccin

KOTZ e TREICHEL- Chimica - EdiSES

KW Whitten, RE Davis, ML Peck, GG Stanley - Chimica Generale - Piccin, 2004

R Chang, Fondamenti di Chimica generale, McGraw-Hill, 2009

J. Burdge, CHIMICA, Casa editrice Ambrosiana, 2010

BROWN, LEMAY, BURSTEN, MURPHY, WOODWARD, Fondamenti di Chimica, EdiSES, 2011

Teaching methods

Lectures. there are 72 hours of lectures and 12 hours of tutoring. Multimedia resources are employed and students are encourage to take advantage of free software for visualization and manipulation of molecular structures. If needed, lectures will be delivered in asynchronous mode for students who cannot attend te lectures in the class.

Assessment methods and criteria

The exam is composed by a written part aimed to ascertain the knowledge, followed by an oral part. The written exam is on 12 questions of the general chemistry program + 3 exercises of the lab program. The written exam is passed with 18/30 scores on both the parts. The oral part is aimed to ascertain the ability to apply knowledge. Details are in the document describing the joint course.

Other information

joint with the course of Laboratory