cod. 08720

Academic year 2024/25
3° year of course - First semester
Maria Pia ADORNI
Academic discipline
Farmacologia (BIO/14)
Primo soccorso
Type of training activity
14 hours
of face-to-face activities
2 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

The course aims to contribute to the training of a professional capable of knowing and understanding the general principles of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics as well as the effects of the main classes of drugs frequently used in ophthalmology. In particular, this course will allow the student to develop the knowledge needed to understand: 1) the fate of the drug in the body (absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination); 2) the characteristics of the administration routes (in particular the ocular route); 3) factors that influence the absorption of drugs used in ophthalmology; 4) various pharmaceutical forms; 5) the mechanism of action of the drugs and 6) the effects (therapeutic and adverse) that the drug produces after systemic or local administration (with particular reference to the effects at the ocular level). Furthermore, some classes of drugs frequently used in ophthalmology will be analysed.
At the end of the course, the student will have the ability to apply the following knowledge acquired:
-evaluation of the pharmacokinetic factors that determine pharmacological effects, pharmacological mechanisms and toxicity to better clarify the pharmacological effect of drugs;
-assessment of the basis of drug effects (therapies and side effects) used in ocular therapy.
Therefore, the student will improve his ability to communicate and interact with other professional figures (doctor, nurse...) and to fully participate in the interdisciplinary model of eye care, improving the quality of patient care.



Course unit content

The course will focus on the general concepts of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamics, and on drug delivery issues relevant to ocular therapy. The effects, properties and reactions of some therapeutics drugs used in eye care will be also evaluated.

Full programme

Definition of drug; development of medicines; generic drugs and brand name drugs; Biological and biosimilar drugs;
Pharmacokinetics: mechanisms of transport across biological membranes; main routes of drug administration, absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of drugs.
Bioavailability, blood-brain barrier, placental barrier, volume of distribution, therapeutic range, dose-effect and dose-response curves, therapeutic index, plasma half-life.
Characteristics of ocular routes of drug administration, blood-ocular barrier, ocular formulations.
Pharmacodynamics: drug-receptor interactions, classification of receptors, main signal transduction pathways; receptor agonists and antagonists, potency, intrinsic activity and maximum efficacy of a drug; Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID); glucocorticoids;
Chemotherapy of microbial disease in the eye: general consideration, antibacterial agents and antiviral agents. Drugs used for the treatment of glaucoma. Autonomic agents used in ophthalmology.


“Farmacologia. Principi di base e applicazioni terapeutiche” di F. Rossi, V. Cuomo, C. Riccardi. Ed. Minerva Medica – ultima edizione

“Rang & Dale farmacologia” di H.P Rang, M.M. Dale, J.M Ritter, R.J. Flower, G. Henderson- ed Edra (last edition)

Teaching methods


Assessment methods and criteria

oral exam

Other information

Every day, by prior appointment by telephone or e-mail
tel: 0521 903895
If necessary, the reception could take place remotely using the Teams platform