## Learning objectives

This course aims at introducing and developing the concepts of deterministic signal and random signal, as models for physical systems of interest in the engineering contexts (electronics, computer science, telecommunications and related subjects). Signal transfomrations are introduced, as models of various systems encountered in several areas of ICT (amplifiers, filters, transmission lines, modulators, samplers, etc.).

At the end of the course, the Student should:

- know the techniques for the analysis of signals in the frequency domain;

- being able to apply these techniques to the filtering an sampling of an analog signal;

- know and be able to communicate concepts related to random signal (mean parameters; power spectral density, stationarity,).

- be able to face the face and deepen autonomously the case-study of specific random processes (harmonic process, PAM signal, etc.).

## Prerequisites

Knowledge of the fundamentals of Claculus, with specific reference to the algebra of complex numbers and their representation in the exponential form (and related Euler's forulae).

Detailed knowledge of the Theory of Probability, from elementary probability to random variables (RVs) and their moments, up to the characterization of couples of RVs and random vectors,.

## Course unit content

In the first and largest part of this course (covering almost three quarters of it), we introduce deterministic signals and their analysis, both in the time- and in the frequency-domain. We shall analyze the trasformations that signals undergo through linear systems and through the sampling process;

The last part of the course exploits the previous knowledge about the theory of probability (studied in the first year). We introduce the concept of stochastic process, as a model to study random signals and their transformations throgh systems.

## Full programme

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## Bibliography

- A. Vannucci, "Segnali e Sistemi - Elementi di Ingegneria delle Telecomunicazioni", Universitas Editrice, Parma, 2023, ISBN: 978-88-97946-20-5

- A. Vannucci, "Esercizi d'esame di Teoria dei Segnali", Pitagora Editrice, Bologna, 2018, ISBN: 88-371-1811-2

The textbook above is the new edition of (hence is equivalento to) the textbook that follows, that has been published until 2022 (and thus should still be currently in commerce) by the editor Pitagora, who has now ceased its activity:

- A. Vannucci, "Segnali analogici e sistemi ineari", Pitagora Editrice, Bologna, 2003, ISBN: 88-371-1416-8

## Teaching methods

This is a 6 credits (CFU) course, for which 48 hours of Class Lecturesare foreseen, to build up the understanding and critical processing of the subject matter.

Applications and exercises related to the presented topics are regularly proposed (via traditional or flipped classroom techniques) to develop application skills. Other assignments are given through the web learning platform Elly.

When foreseen by the long-term teaching plan of this University, a Tutor shall give guided exercises.

Teaching methods shall be adapted to the possible presence (detected according to laws and guidelines) of students with special needs and or disabilities.

COVID-19 WARNING:since the Teaching activity at the University of Parma has been, long ago, brought back to normality, this course is held in presence and its lectures will NOT be recorded, neither they have ever been.

For those who wish to have University courses in the form of a remote and/or asynchronous video, we recall that a number of appropriate institutions, called "Università Telematiche" exist in Italy, for possible enrollment.

## Assessment methods and criteria

The overall assessment of the learning outcomes foresees two tests:

1) a structured written test with 2 open questions, where the student shall demonstrate his/her ability to:

- analyze an analog signal and its possible transformations, in the time and frequency domain;

- analyze a random signal and its possible filtering, by evaluating its moments and/or power spectrum

The duration of the written test is 1.5 hours. The test is evaluated on a 0-30 scale, plus possible honors, in the case of top grades in all items together with an ppropriateness of language.

2) an oral test, consisting of a critical discussion about the topics developed during the course. The student shall demonstrate proper knowledge and ability to illustrate the topic, with sufficient accuracy in the language.

Students can optionally take two intermediate written tests- to take place halfway during the course and at the end of the course, respectively - that shall replace the overall assessment procedure above.

The first test is a sequence of 10 closed multiple choice questions (whose only purpose is to grant access to the following step, if at least 6/10 of the answers are correct, hence the evaluation of this test has no impact on the final grade), followed by two open questions, similar to those illustrated at point 1) above.

The second test is is ismply made up of two open questions, similar to those illustrated at point 1) above.

In case the student takes both intermediate tests, the overall evaluation shall be assessed without an oral test.

Assessment methods shall be adapted to the possible presence (detected according to laws and guidelines) of students with special needs and or disabilities.

## Other information

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