cod. 1004220

Academic year 2023/24
2° year of course - First semester
Academic discipline
Patologia generale (MED/04)
Discipline del settore biomedico
Type of training activity
48 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Learning objectives

Upon the successful completion of the course, the student will be able:
- to understand causes and mechanisms underlying the main pathologic processes at cell, tissue and organism levels
- to apply the acquired knowledge to the comprehension of the pathophysiological aspects of human disease
- to correlate etiology and pathogenesis with structural/functional alterations, thus providing rational bases for the use of laboratory techniques
- to describe and discuss pathologic processes, demonstrating communication and learning skills through the proper use of the knowledge acquired and an adequate technical language.


Adequate bases of cell biology, histology, anatomy, biochemistry, immunology, and physiology are required.

Course unit content

The main subjects of the course are:
- Injury and adaptive mechanisms of cells and tissues
- Tissue responses to injury: Inflammation, Hemostasis, Repair
- Immunopathology
- Pathophysiology of endocrine glands and metabolism
For each group of subjects, information about the main relevant laboratory techniques will also be provided.

Full programme

1) Cell injury ed adaptation:
- oxidative stress and the cell response
- intracellular and extracellular accumulations
- ER stress and UPR
- Ischemic-hypoxic stress and the cell response
- Cell death: classification (accidental, regulated, programmed) and modalities (necrosis, apoptosis, other)
- Methods for the study of cell damage and cell death
- Adaptations: atrophy, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia

2) Tissue responses to injury:
- Acute inflammation: events, cells, mediators
- Resolution
- Chronic inflammation, granulomas, fibrosis
- Systemic events in inflammation
- Disorders of the inflammatory response
- The laboratory in inflammation
- Phases of the hemostatic response
- Hemorrhagic disease and DIC
- Thrombosis, Embolia, Infarction
- The laboratory in the study of hemostasis
- Atherosclerosis
- Tissue repair and its disorders

3) Immunology and Immunopathology:
- Innate immunity.
- Acquired immunity. B and T lymphocytes and their receptors. Antigens and antibodies -- The Major Histocompatibility System (MHC). APC and antigen presentation.
- Activation of B and T lymphocytes. The production of effectors of the immune response: antibodies, and T cells.
- Immunologic tolerance
-Immunity to bacteria, virus and protozoa. Infection with SARS-Cov-2 and
- Vaccination
- Tumor immunology
- Transplantation.
- Immunodeficiencies.
- Hypersensitivity.
- Pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases.
- Immunological techniques and Laboratory techniques in clinical immunology

4) Pathophysiology:
- Pathophysiology of the diabetic syndrome
- Atherosclerosis
- Hepatic Pathophysiology
- Endocrine pathophysiology
- The laboratory in diabetes


Robbins e Cotran - Le basi patologiche delle malattie - Patologia generale ( edizione ridotta )
Autori: Robbins - Cotran - Kumar - Abbas - Aster
Editore: Elsevier - Masson
Volume: Unico
Edizione: IX 2017
The major version of the "Robbins" textbook is also (obviously) fully adequate.

- Albi, Ambesi-Inpombiato,Curcio, Moncharmont, Palese – Le basi cellulari
e molecolari delle malattie – Ildeson Gnocchi.

References on specific subjects will be provided during lessons.

Teaching methods

Oral interactive lessons, supported by iconographic material that will be made availble to the students at the beginning of the Course with the Elly platform. Slides will be up-dated at the end of the Course. This material is an essential, but by no means exhaustive, support for the students.
Lessons will provide the main conceptual frame of each subject, summoning questions or doubts from the audience and indicating bibliographic references for in-depth study of the subject.
Specific arguments will be treated also with the cooperation of specialists in seminars in Italian or English, with particular reference to the laboratory techniques used for the study/characterization of specific pathologic processes.

Assessment methods and criteria

No interim summative assessment will be performed. However, it is possible that diagnostic or valutative assessments will be performed during the course.

The final summative assessment will consist in an oral examination.
Questions/student: 2 (from two different examiners, one question/examiner)
Questions will concern subjects listed in the detailed program.
Failure to answer to one question or to define correctly the subject, or very serious mistakes indicative of severe knowledge gaps, will prevent the successful completion of the exam.
After each question, the examiner will give an evalaution expressed in marks:
A. Very good knowledge and understanding. Very good capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 30/30.
B. Good knowledge and understanding. Good capability to apply knowledge to biomedical problems. Corresponding to 27-29/30.
C. Average knowledge and understanding (some mistakes). Average capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 24-26/30.
D. Sufficient knowledge and understanding but with several mistakes. Sufficient capability of applying information to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 21-23/30.
E. Barely sufficient knowledge and understanding (with evident and severe pitfalls). Scarce capability of applying knowledge to bio-medical problems. Corresponding to 18-20/30.
Full marks with laude will be reserved to students exhibiting, together an overal evaluation of 30/30, capability of making judgments and good communication ability and autonomous learning skills.
The final vote will be decided jointly by the examiners, who will have the possibility to decide a vote not higher or lower than three grades from the best or the worst vote derived from the mean of the two individual votes.
Students with Specific Learning Disorders must contact the University Reception and Inclusion Centre in advance (

Other information

- - -