cod. 1009817

Academic year 2023/24
3° year of course - First semester
- Riccardo BONADONNA - Alessandra DEI CAS
Academic discipline
Endocrinologia (MED/13)
Clinica delle specialità medico-chirurgiche
Type of training activity
50 hours
of face-to-face activities
5 credits
course unit

Integrated course unit module: Endocrine & Metabolic & Gastrointestinal Diseases

Learning objectives

Students will be enabled to recognize and to manage the endocrine and the metabolic disorders


As required by the School of Medicine & Surgery

Course unit content

Etiological, epidemiological, pathophysiological, diagnostic, therapeutic and clinical features of endocrine and metabolic disorders

Full programme

It is requested the knowledge of relevant anatomy, physiology, molecular hormone action, lab investigations, imaging, principles of diagnosis, prognosis, management and therapy, of all below mentioned glands/disorders.
1. Hypothalamus/Pituitary Gland
a. Hypothalamus
b. Hypopituitarism
c. GH deficiency
d. Pituitary tumors
e. Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas
f. Cushing’s disease
g. Pituitary incidentalomas
h. Chraniopharingiomas
i. Lymphocytic hypophisitis
j. Diabetes insipidus
k. Hyponatremia
m. Eating disorders
n. Pineal gland
2. Thyroid
a. Screening for thyroid disease
b. Thyrotoxicosis and Hyperthyroidism
c. Goitre
d. Solitary adenomas
e. Thyroiditis
f. Hypothyroidism
g. Thyroid cancer
3. Adrenal Gland
a. Mineralocorticoid excess and Hyperaldosteronism
b. Cushing’s syndrome
c. Liddle’s syndrome
d. Bartter’s syndrome
e. Gitelman’s syndrome
f. Mineralocorticoid deficiency
g. Adrenal’s insufficiency and Addison’s disease
h. Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS)
i. Adrenal tumors
j. Adrenal incidentalomas
k. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas
4. Reproductive Endocrinology
a. Hirsutism
b. Policystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
c. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults
d. Menstrual function disorders
e. Amenorrhea
f. Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI)
g. Turner syndrome in adulthood
h. Menopause
i. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
j. Hormonal contraception
k. Male hypogonadism
l. Androgen replacement therapy
m. Gynecomastia
n. Testicular tumors
o. Erectile dysfunction
p. Infertility
q. Gender incongruence and dysphoria in adults
5. Calcium and Bone Metabolism
a. Hypercalcemia
b. Primary hyperparathyroidism
c. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
d. Hypocalcemia
e. Vitamin D deficiency
f. Hypophosphatemia
g. Hypomagnesemia
h. Osteoporosis
i. Paget’s disease
6. Neuroendocrine Disorders
a. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs)
b. Carcinoid syndrome
c. Insulinomas and hypoglycemia
d. Gastrinomas
e. pNETs
f. Multiple endocrine neoplasias (MENs)
7. Diabetes Mellitus
a. Classification and diagnosis
b. Subdiabetic hyperglycemia (Prediabetes)
c. Type 1 Diabetes
d. Type 2 Diabetes
e. Gestational diabetes
f. Living with diabetes
g. Diabetic ketoacidosis
h. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state
i. Diabetic eye disease
j. Diabetic kidney disease
k. Diabetic neuropathy
l. Diabetic foot
m. Macrovascular disease
8. Lipids and Hyperlipidemia
a. Lipids and cardiovascular disease
b. Primary hyperlipidemias
c. Secondary hyperlipidemias
9. Obesity
a. Definition and epidemiology
b. Etiology and pathophysiology
c. Consequences
d. Management of people with obesity


1. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine - last edition
2. Kumar & Clark's Clinical Medicine - last edition

Teaching methods

The course may be held through lectures to Students either in the classroom (“in presenza”) or in synchronous-streaming (“in telepresenza”) on the Teams platform. Therefore, the opportunity of Student/Teacher interaction will be preserved both face to face and remotely, by the simultaneous use of the Teams platform.
Lectures will be supported by slide presentations, some of which will be available to students on the Elly platform (https://elly.medicina.unipr.it).

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral examination or multiple choice question test.
Range of assessment values: 1-30 (30 best)
In case of health emergency (or similar situations), the exams will be conducted remotely, as follows:
remote oral questions, through the Teams platform (guide http://selma.unipr.it/).
Students with SLD / BSE must first contact Le Eli-che: support for students with disabilities, D.S.A., B.E.S. (https://sea.unipr.it/it/servizi/le-eli-che-supporto-studenti-con-disabilita-dsa-bes)
Alternatively, multiple choice questionnaires may be used via Teams and Elly.

Other information

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