cod. 1000479

Academic year 2021/22
2° year of course - First semester
- Simonetta CROCI
Academic discipline
Fisica applicata (a beni culturali, ambientali, biologia e medicina) (FIS/07)
Scienze propedeutiche
Type of training activity
7 hours
of face-to-face activities
1 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit

Integrated course unit module: PHYSICAL RISKS AT WORK

Learning objectives

This corse about Heath Physics is one part of the main course. It wants to give a background to undergraduate students about health and environmental physics related to the ionising radiations with aim to use the knowledge and the acquired understanding to identify a risk related to ionizing radiation or its uses. These results can be achieved with the understanding of many applications of ionising radiations used in diagnosis and therapy .


Course unit content

The first part of lectures is related to the definition of ionizing radiations with particular reference to the production of X-rays and to the production of radiation emitted during radioactive decays.
The second part of the course is devoted to the discussion of the ionizing radiation interaction with matter. In particular, it will be explained the interactions of X-ray, gamma photons, heavy charged particles, light charged particles and neutrons with matter. The third part of the course covers applications with particular reference to biomedical and industrial diagnostic techniques.

Full programme

Ionizing radiation: X-ray and their production
Radioactivity and nuclear reaction: simple radioactivity decay , decay chains, radioactive equilibria.
Type of radioactivity decay: alpha ; beta ; gamma
Interaction of high energy photons with matter elastic scattering , Photoelectric effect, Compton Effect, Pair Production, Activation.
X-ray application: traditional radio diagnostic, TC
Interaction of heavy charge particles with matter: specific energy loss.
Bragg's peak : ion beam therapy.
Interaction of light charged particles with matter
Interaction of neutron with matter


Lecture Notes

Joseph Magill , Jean Galy: Radioactivity Radionuclides Radiation, Springer Ed.

Teaching methods

The aims of the course will be mostly achieved with lectures, but also with practical exercises. During class students are engage through the use of spreadsheets and applets.
The lectures will be held on-site in compliance with safety standards, provided that further instructions on the ongoing health emergency are not implemented. Supporting material will be available on the specific, student-reserved platform (Elly) and will include slide presentations, audio-video aids or video-recording of the lectures.

The online learning platform (Kahoot) will also be used. With Kahoot it is possible to create quizzes ideal for teaching, both remotely and face-to-face, integrating digital in the lessons.

Assessment methods and criteria

The assessment of the achievement of course aims is obtained with a written test using fill-in-the-blanks questions. In case of the persistence of the health emergency, the exams will be conducted remotely, as follows:
remote quizzes, through the Elly platform and Teams platform (guide

In this case the test consists of 30 multiple choice /multiple answer questions on the course contents (reference texts + documents uploaded to Elly during the course). There is no penalty for incorrect answers.

Students with SLD / BSE must first contact Le Eli-che: support for students with disabilities, D.S.A., B.E.S. (

Through questions about the contents of the course will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of content knowledge and understanding. Through questions regarding healthcare and industrial applications will be determined whether the student has achieved the goal of applying the acquired knowledge.

Other information