CHEMISTRY 1
cod. 1002181

Academic year 2020/21
1° year of course - First semester
Professor
- Chiara MASSERA
Academic discipline
Fondamenti chimici delle tecnologie (CHIM/07)
Field
Fisica e chimica
Type of training activity
Basic
72 hours
of face-to-face activities
9 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in ITALIAN

Learning objectives

Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have integrated his knowledge
about natural phenomena governing the transformation of matter, will
have a complete overview of the laws governing the structure of atoms,
molecules and compounds; know the theoretical reasons that are at the
basis of the energy balance during the transformations of matter, will
know how to obtain electrical work by processes of redox
transformations.
Applying knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course the student will have developed the ability to
understand some physical and chemical characteristics of the
substances, such as state of aggregation and volatility, hardness and
fragility based on the knowledge of their structure. He will know how to
quantify spontaneity of chemical and electrochemical processes and
quantify the mass and energy balance during these transformations.
Making judgments:
By the end of the course, the student should be able to evaluate, with
critical mind, the experimental measurements of chemical reactions
Communication skills:
By the end of the course, the student should be able to clearly present
the experimental results of chemical reactions.

Prerequisites

A solid background in physics and mathematics is recommended. No chemical background is needed.

Course unit content

The atomic structure of matter

Electronic structure of atoms

Chemical bonds

Nomenclature

Thermochemistry and thermodynamics

The gaseous state

The Iiquid state

The solid state

Nature of solutions

Chemical equilibrium

Equilibria in solution

Electrochemistry

Kinetics

Organic Chemistry

Full programme

THE ATOMIC STRUTURE OF MATTER
Historical development of atomic theory. Subatomic particles. Principles
of stoichiometry
ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
Early atomic models: the Bohr atom; wave mechanical models.
Multielectronic atoms and the Aufbau principle. Electron configurations of
the elements in the periodic table. Periodic properties of the elements

CHEMICAL BONDS
Ionic bond, covalent bond, electronic delocalization and resonance. Polar
covalent bond. Electronegativity. Molecular geometry (VSEPR) and polarity. VB and MO. Metal
bond (band theory from MO model). Conductors, insulators and
semiconductors. Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond.

NOMENCLATURE AND REACTIONS
Oxidation numbers, classification and nomenclature of inorganic
compounds. Types of chemical equations.

THERMODINAMICS AND THERMOCHEMISTRY
The First Law. Enthalpy. Heat of formation, thermochemical equations,
Hess’s Iaw and enthalpy diagrams.
The Second Law: entropy. Gibbs free energy

THE GASEOUS STATE
Introduction. Equation of state of an ideal gas. Real gases. Van der Waals
equation. Kinetic theory. Partial pressure and partial volume. Gas
Iiquefaction, critical temperature.

THE LIQUID STATE
Introduction. Evaporation. Vapour tension and its dependence from the
temperature. Relative humidity. Boiling. Sublimation. Fusion and
solidification. Water and carbon dioxide phase diagrams.

THE SOLID STATE
Crystalline and amorfous solids. Crystal lattice and lattice planes.
Primitive and non-primitive cells. Covalent, ionic, molecular and metallic
crystals. Polymorphism.

SOLUTIONS
Nature of solutions. Concentration of solutions. Raoult’s Iaw. Colligative
properties of solutions.
The van’t Hoff coefficient.

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
Chemical equilibrium: the Iaw of mass action. The equilibrium constants
Kp and Kc. Omogeneous and eterogeneous equilibrium. The Le
Chatelier—Braun principle. Phase equilibria. Sulphur fase diagram. Binary systems. Distillation. Eutectic systems. Alloys. Solubility and solubility product.

EQUILIBRIA IN SOLUTION
Acids and bases: Arrhenius’ theory, the Brønsted-Lowry theory. Water
autoionization. The ionic product of water. The pH scale. Hydrolysis. pH indicators. Buffers.

ELECTROCHEMISTRY
Electrolytic cells. Electrolysis and its applications. Stoichiometry of
electrolysis. Galvanic cells. Stoichiometry of galvanic processes.
Electrode potentials and electromotive force in standard conditions.
Nernst equation. Applications. Corrosion.

KINETICS

Reaction rates. Transition state theory. Factors influencing the rate of a reaction. Catalysis.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alicyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, haloderivatives, polymers. alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketons, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, aminoacids.

Bibliography

"Lezioni di Chimica per Ingegneria"
F. Ugozzoli - Libreria Medico Scientifica, Parma
"Fondamenti ti Chimica"
A. M. Manotti Lanfredi, A. Tiripicchio -
Editori CEA
"Come risolvere i problemi di chimica"
F. Ugozzoli – CEA, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana

Teaching methods

Lectures using slides (available to students via download from the elly website) and blackboard. Optional tutorials on practical exercises with the help of dedicated secondary school
teachers employed as tutors. The Professor is available to give extra explanations.

For the academic year 2019/2020, due to the COVID19 emergency, tthe lessons will be recorded and uploaded on the platfrom Elly.

Assessment methods and criteria

The examination is based on a written test (5 exercises and four open theoretical questions - time available: 3 hours) and on an oral exam, once the written part has been passed. The exercises of the written part are of the type proposed by the text book and explained during the course.
Once the written exam has been passed, it remains valid for an academic year.
The evaluation is expressed in /30.
In the written exam, there are two separate marks for the exercises and the theoretical questions. Each exercise and each question are marked with a vote ranging from 0 to 10 points. All the marks will be summed up and scaled to yield a grade in the 30/30 range.

Other information

Attendance is strongly recommended