APPLIED GEOLOGY
cod. 23317

Academic year 2021/22
3° year of course - Second semester
Professor
- Andrea SEGALINI
Academic discipline
Geologia applicata (GEO/05)
Field
Ingegneria ambientale e del territorio
Type of training activity
Characterising
48 hours
of face-to-face activities
6 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in ITALIAN

Learning objectives

The aim of the course is to provide the students with the fundamental knowledge of the modern geology, starting from the formation of the planet and arriving to the plate tectonic theory. The first part of the course provides the students with the basic knowledge of the “fundamental system” of the Earth, through the study of the genetic process of the various rocks found on surface. The second half of the course deals primarily with the general processes that are acting on the Earth surface, such as water runoff, ice and glaciers, wind etc. The general purpose is to supply the students of Civil and Environmental Engineering with the basic geological knowledge that will allow them to understand the interaction between human actions and natural environment for both, environmental preservation and natural risk reduction.

Prerequisites

None

Course unit content

FIRST PART
Formation of a planet
Continental drift: the unifying theory
The minerals: “bricks of the rocks”
The rocks: witnesses of geological processes
Igneus rocks
Internal Phenomenon: Volcanism
External Phenomenon: Degradation and erosion
Sediments and sedimentary rocks
Metamorphic rocks
Folds, faults and deformations in rocks
The earthquakes
SECONDA PARTE
On site surveys – Typology, instrumentations and machines
One site tests – Execution and interpretation
Remote Monitoring – techniques and instruments
Remote Monitoring Data analysis and validation
Contact Monitoring. Instruments and features
Monitoring: Design, data storage and statistical analysis
Early Warning Systems

Full programme

First Part
Formation of a planet
Aspects of geology, Planetary system origin, the Earth as an evolving planet, continental drift theory, the geological time concept, the scientific methodology
Continental drift: the unifying theory
An overview, the plate puzzle; movement velocity of the plates; Geometry of the plates mechanics; lithological associations and plate tectonics; Microplates terrains and tectonics; the big reconstruction; the tectonic engine.
The minerals: “bricks of the rocks”
What are the minerals? Atomic structure of the materials; Chemical reactions; Gain and loss of electrons; Sharing of electrons; The periodic table of elements; Chemical binds; Atomic structure of minerals; the minerals forming rocks; physical properties of minerals; chemical properties of minerals.
The rocks: witnesses of geological processes
Igneus rocks; Sedimentary rocks; Metamorphic rocks, Chemical structure of the rocks; where the rocks can be observed? The lithogenetic cycle.
Igneus rocks
Main type of igneus rocks; origins of magma; the magmatic differentiation; The Bowen reaction series; Types of magmatic intrusions.
Internal Phenomenon: Volcanism
Volcano deposits; Types of eruptions; the global distribution of volcanos; the volcano and the human society.
External Phenomenon: Degradation and erosion
Geological and Geographical factors of the weathering; Chemical alteration; Physical disgregation; the soil as a residual of weathering; the weathering as a source of sediments.
Sediments and sedimentary rocks
The raw material of the sediments: particles and solutions; sediment transportation; sedimentation: the end of the trip; Diagenesis and lithification; Classification of the sediments and of the sedimentary rocks; Stratification and sedimentary structures; clastic sediments and clastic rocks; Chemical and biochemical sediments and rocks.
Metamorphic rocks
Physical and chemical factors of metamorphism, types of metamorphism, metamorphic structures, regional metamorphism and metamorphic degree; Contact metamorphism, plate tectonic and metamorphism.
Folds, faults and deformations in rocks
On site data analysis, how the rocks are deforming? Folds; how the rocks are breaking? Faults; reconstruction of the geological history; influence of the deformations on the landscape of the Earth.
The earthquakes
What’s an earthquake? The study of earthquakes; the big picture: earthquakes and plate tectonics; destruction power of earthquakes.

Seconda Parte
On site surveys – Typology, instrumentations and machines
Investigation programme; Observational method; Methods of investigation; Trial pits; Auger boring; Percussion boring; Rotary boring; Stabilization of boreholes; Characteristics of samplers; Data representation.
One site tests – Execution and interpretation
Standard Penetration Test SPT; Cone Penetration Test (CPT and CPTU); Marchetti dilatometer; Field Vane Test; Pressuremeter test; Plate load test; Shallow seismic exploration test; Geoelectrical surveys; Permeability Test, Data interpretation.
Remote Monitoring – techniques and instruments
Slope monitoring introduction, role and objectives; main technologies and tools for remote sensing activities: Photogrammetry, Topography, GPS, Laser Scanner, Satellite and Groud-Based SAR Interferometry; Operating principles and practical applications.
Remote Monitoring Data analysis and validation
Digital images analysis and elaboration, ground truth/on-site validation, maps creation from remote sensing images; Integration with Geographic Information System software (GIS), main uses and applications.
Contact Monitoring. Instruments and features
Monitoring definition; Objectives; Sensors; Inclinometers; Clinometers; Load cells; Pressure cells; Crackmeters and Jointmeters; Multipoint borehole extensometers; Incremental extensometers; Fixed extensometers; Piezometers; Direct and inverted Pendulus, Innovative instruments (Mums, Dms, Saa, Ais, Liquid level systems).
Monitoring: Design, data storage and statistical analysis
Planning monitoring programs (structures, landslides and underground excavations), Automated Systems, Cloud computing, Data storage, Data representation platform, Statistical analysis of data.
Early Warning Systems
Early Warning structure and main components: design, monitoring, forecasting, response; focus on failure forecasting methods and alert threshold assessment; Early Warning System in Italy, real time and deferred time.

Bibliography

Press F., Siever R. – Capire la terra – Ed. Italiana a cura di Lupia Palmieri E., Parlotto M. – Zanichelli Edizioni

Teaching methods

Frontal lectures

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral examination

Other information