BIOCHEMISTRY AND NUTRITION
cod. 1008664

Academic year 2019/20
1° year of course - Second semester
Professor
NAPONELLI Valeria, GALLO Mariana
Academic discipline
Biochimica (BIO/10)
Field
Biomedico
Type of training activity
Characterising
35 hours
of face-to-face activities
5 credits
hub: PARMA
course unit
in ITALIAN

Integrated course unit module: BIOCHEMISTRY, NUTRITION AND METABOLISM IN SPORT

Learning objectives

The aim of the course is to provide students with an in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that explain the metabolic responses and the adaptation of the organism to intense and short-term physical exercise, to prolonged and constant exercise and to training, metabolism muscle and the biochemistry of training. Furthermore, the aim of the course is to provide students with recommendations for an optimal diet for athletes of various disciplines, highlighting the close link between nutrition, energy metabolism and physical response to exercise. The student is asked to understand and learn the content of the course. Attendance at the course will enable the student to acquire the appropriate skills to be able to describe, communicate effectively and comment on the most important topics of the program with independent judgment.

Prerequisites

The students will have to fulfill the prerequisites previously established in the CdS.

Course unit content

Initially the course introduces the student to the molecular organization and function of sarcomere describing the molecular action of contraction.
Metabolic interrelationships in tissues and organs: metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Metabolism during feeding, fasting and stress. The Skeletal Muscle, sarcomere and myofibrillar proteins: structural organization, Molecular mechanisms of nerve impulse conduction and muscle contraction. Energy for muscle contraction. Classification, properties and metabolism of muscle fibers. Distribution of the various types of fibers.
The course continues describing the function of energy substrates during different kind of physical exercise and dissecting the fatigue at molecular level.
Sources of energy in the muscle. Energy substrates present in the muscle fibers. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism: aerobic, anaerobic a-lactate and anaerobic lactate. Effects of physical exercise on glucose transport systems and the effect of training. Carbohydrate metabolism during exercise. Lipid metabolism during exercise. Amino acid and protein metabolism during exercise. Molecular signals and regulators of muscle fatigue. Training.
Basal metabolism and metabolic balance. Nutrient principles and evaluation of energy and nutritional needs in physiological conditions and for the athlete. Healthy eating habits and eating patterns. Diet and exercise.

Full programme

Metabolic interrelationships in tissues and organs: metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Metabolism during feeding, fasting and stress. The Skeletal Muscle, sarcomere and myofibrillar proteins: structural organization, Molecular mechanisms of nerve impulse conduction and muscle contraction. Energy for muscle contraction. Classification, properties and metabolism of muscle fibers. Distribution of the various types of fibers. Sources of energy in the muscle. Energy substrates present in the muscle fibers. Aerobic and anaerobic metabolism: aerobic, anaerobic a-lactate and anaerobic lactate. Effects of physical exercise on glucose transport systems and the effect of training. Carbohydrate metabolism during exercise. Lipid metabolism during exercise. Amino acid and protein metabolism during exercise. Molecular signals and regulators of muscle fatigue. Training. Role of hormones in regulating the different metabolic activities and their variations in relation to activity and sport. Biochemistry of the endocrine system and its regulation. Structure and classification of hormones. Receptors and mechanism of action of hormones. Second messengers. Metabolic role of hormones.
Energy and nutritional requirements of healthy subjects and in sports activities. Macro- and micronutrients. The balanced diet. Diet and sports performance. Pre-, intra- and post-competitive diet.

Bibliography

Recommended text and bibliographic sources:
Nelson DL, Cox MM: I principi di Biochimica di Lehninger, Zanichelli, Bologna.
Caldarera CM, BIOCHIMICA SISTEMATICA UMANA, 2003, Clueb
G. Federici,: Medicina di laboratorio – Ed. McGraw - Hill (ultima edizione)
Di Giulio A., Fiorilli A., Stefanelli C.: BIOCHIMICA PER LE SCIENZE MOTORIE, Editore CEA
Mougios V.: EXERCISE BIOCHEMISTRY, Human Kinetics
Nutrizione per lo sport 1: Principi di nutrizione. Biagi, Di Giulio, Fiorilli, Lorenzini, Editrice Ambrosiana
Nutrizione per lo sport 2: Alimentazione per lo sport e la salute. Biagi, Di Giulio, Fiorilli, Lorenzini, Editrice Ambrosiana
Sito della Società Italiana di Nutrizione Umana: www.sinu.it/
Sito dell’Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione: www.inran.it
Fondamenti di Nutrizione Umana. Di A Mariani Costantini, C Cannella e G Tomassi. Il Pensiero Scientifico Ed. Roma, 1999.

Teaching methods

The course will be held with oral lectures and seminars to deep single issues, and will make use of multimedia systems. During the lessons, students will have the opportunity to discuss the key aspects of the course. Teachers will be available throughout the duration of the course to answer questions and support students during their training with individual meetings by appointment.

Assessment methods and criteria

The course includes an oral test conducted with a traditional approach (oral question) in front of the examining board consisting of the course teachers. The summative judgment will be expressed with a final mark out of thirty (on a scale of 0-30).

Other information

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